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Full text of "Eastern Kentucky papers; the founding of Harman's Station, with an account of the Indian captivity of Mrs. Jennie Wiley and the exploration and settlement of the Big Sandy Valley in the Virginias and Kentucky"

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RATIVE:      JOHN     BROWN:       WYANDOT     FOLK-LORE:     THE    PROVI- 





THE  TORCH  PRESS,  29-33  West  42d  Street 














The  introductory  chapter  to  the  history  of  most  of  the 
early  settlements  of  Kentucky  is  the  story  of  a  tragedy. 
In  many  instances  this  characteristic  of  their  annals  is 
repeated,  often  deepened  and  intensified,  for  a  number  of 
years  after  their  beginning.  This  feature  does  not  apply 
to  the  history  of  one  locality  more  than  to  that  of  ayiother. 
It  is  the  general  ride  and  is  found  in  the  story  of  almost 
every  community.  The  founding  of  Barman's  Station 
on  the  Louisa  River  ^  ivas  directly  caused  by  a  tragedy  as 
dark  and  horrible  as  any  ever  perpetrated  by  the  savages 
upon  the  exposed  and  dangerous  frontier  of  Virginia. 
The  destruction  of  the  home  of  Thomas  Wiley  in  the  valley 
of  Walker's  Creek,  the  murder  of  his  children,  the  cap- 
tivity of  his  tvife  by  savages  and  her  miraculous  escape 
were  the  first  incidents  in  a  series  of  events  in  the  history 
of  Kentucky  ivhich  properly  belong  to  the  annals  of  the 
Big  Sandy  Valley.  Over  them  time  has  cast  a  tinge  of 
romance,  and  they  have  groivn  in  historical  importance 
for  more  than  a  century.  While  they  have  been  treasured 
by  the  people  in  that  portion  of  Eastern  Kentucky  adja- 
cent to  the  Virginias  for  more  than  a  hundred  years  they 

1  The  Louisa  River  was  named  hy  Dr.  Thomas  Walker  on  Thursday,  the 
7th  day  of  June,  1750.  The  entry  in  Br.  Walker's  Journal  describing  this 
event  is  as  follows:  "June  7th.  —  The  Creek  being  fordablc,  ive  Crossed  it 
4"  kept  down  IS  miles  to  a  Eiver  about  100  yards  over,  Which  We  called 
Louisa  Eiver.  The  Creek  is  about  SO  yards  wide,  4"  port  of  ye  Eiver 
breaks  into  ye  Creek  —  making  an  Island  on  which  we  Camped." 

In  the  early  days  of  the  settlement  of  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  this  stream 
was  known  altogether  as  the  Louisa  Eiver.  As  late  as  18S5  it  was  generally 
called  the  Louisa  Eiver.  After  that  time,  and  to  some  extent  before,  the 
name  began  to  be  corrupted  to  that  of  Levisa.  The  name  Levisa  is  now  used 
almost  entirely.     That  the  name  is  a  corruption  of  the  true  name,  Lowisa, 

are  preserved  mainly  in  tradition.  Indeed,  it  is  to  tradi- 
tion principally  that  we  must  look  for  the  sources  of  much 
of  the  history  of  all  Eastern  Kentucky.  For  the  history 
of  Kentucky,  so  far  as  it  has  been  written  at  all,  deals 
almost  wholly  ivith  events  which  transpired  in  the  ''blue 
grass  region"  of  the  State. 

Thirteen  years  after  the  establishment  of  the  first  per- 
manent white  settlement  of  Kentucky  at  Harrodsburg  a 
strong  healthy  settlement  of  hardy,  bold,  self-reliant  back- 
woodsmen was  made  in  what  is  noiv  Johnson  County. 
Among  the  founders  of  this  settlement  were  a  number  of 
the  most  noted  explorers,  scouts,  guides,  riflemen,  and 
Indian  fighters  ever  developed  by  the  harsh  and  dangerous 
times  of  the  frontier  days  of  Virginia  and  the  Carolinas. 
Why  some  substantial  account  of  the  station  founded  by 
these  men  in  that  wilderness  was  not  made  a  matter  of 
record  by  some  historical  writer  of  those  times  is  one  of 
the  strange  things  occasionally  found  in  the  annals  of  a 
State.  In  the  company  ivhich  made  this  settlement  ivere 
Matthias  Harman,  Henry  Skaggs,  James  Skaggs,  and 
Robert  Halves,  all  members  of  that  famous  party  knoivn 
in  history  as  the  Long  Hunters.  These  and  others  of  the 
company  had  been  in  the  front  ranks  of  those  audacious 
rangers  of  the  wilderness  who  wrested  the  Ohio  Valley 
from  its  savage  owners.  Through  this  settlement  they 
seized  and  finally  held  the  valley  of  the  Louisa  River. 
The  contest  was  desperate,  and  they  ivere  forced  to  aban- 
don their  station  for  a  time  by  fierce  and  frequent  attacks 
made  upon  it  by  the  Indian  tribes  living  beyond  the  Ohio, 

there  is  no  doubt.  It  appears  that  the  iuime  Louisa  once  attached  to  the 
whole  State  of  Kentuclcy,  hut  the  extent  of  the  application  of  this  name  is 
not  now  Tcnown.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that  as  early  as  1775  the  name 
Louisa  was  corrupted  to  Levisa.  Speed,  in  the  Wilderness  Road,  says  "that 
Felix  Walker,  with  Captain  Tivetty  and  six  others,  left  Eutherford,  North 
Carolina,  in  February  1775  (according  to  Felix  Walker's  narrative),  'to  ex- 
plore the  country  of  Lcowvisay,  now  Kentucky.'  "  But  the  u  ivas  formerly 
written  v,  and  it  may  have  been  so  in  this  word  Lcowvisay;  in  that  case  it 
would  be  Lcowuisay,  an  erroneous  spelling  of  Louisa. 

The  Kentucky  River  was  sometimes  called  the  Louisa  River  by  the  pion- 
eers and  explorers,  and  it  was  called,  also,  the  Cherokee  River.     In  the  deed 

ivho  destroyed  the  blockhouse.  But  these  courageous 
hunters  returned  with  reinforcements  and  rebuilt  their 
ruined  fort  never  again  to  yield  it  to  any  foe.  There  most 
of  them  spent  the  remainder  of  their  days,  and  there  they 
lie  buried.  Descendants  of  many  of  them  live  in  that 
country  to  this  day. 

It  was  distinctly  remembered  by  many  old  people  whom 
I  knew  in  my  youth  that  Matthias  Harman  in  company 
ivith  his  kinsmen  and  other  forest  rangers  established  a 
hunting  station  and  built  a  large  cabin  of  logs,  prior  to  the 
Sandy  Creek  Voyage,  on  the  identical  spot  tvhich  after- 
wards became  the  site  of  their  blockhouse.  It  is  probable 
that  this  hunting  lodge  ivas  the  first  log  cabin  built  in  what 
is  noiv  the  State  of  Kentucky  ivhich  came  to  be  the  basis 
of  a  permanent  settlement  of  English-speaking  people. 
The  settlement  made  there  was  self-supporting.  No  gov- 
ernme7it  took  any  notice  of  its  existence  until  it  was  firmly 
established.  It  did  not  cost  the  States  of  Virginia  or  Ken- 
tucky a  farthing  at  any  time.  Not  so  much  as  a  pound  of 
poivder  or  bar  of  lead  was  ever  contributed  by  either  State 
to  its  equipment  or  defense,  although  it  ivas  repeatedly 
raided  by  Indians  and  the  fort  fiercely  attacked,  once  so 
persistently  and  ivith  such  force  that,  as  said  above,  the 
settlers  returned  to  Virginia  for  a  short  time. 

I  recognized  the  necessity  for  some  reliable  record  of  the 
historical  events  in  the  settlement  of  Eastern  Kentucky 
while  but  yet  a  boy.  Seeing  that  no  man  set  his  hand  to 
the  task,  and  believing  it  the  duty  of  every  one  to  labor  for 
the  common  good,  as  best  he  can,  I  began  then  to  collect 

from  the  CheroTcees  to  Richard  Menderson  and  others,  projyrictors  of  the 
Transylvania  Company,  conveying  the  tract  of  land  knotvn  as  the  Great 
Grant,  we  find  the  description  of  the  land  heginninrj  as  follows:  "All  that 
tract,  territory,  or  parcel  of  land,  situated,  lying  and  being  in  North  America, 
on  the  Ohio  River  one  of  the  eastern  branches  of  the  Mississippi  Biver^  begin- 
ning on  the  said  Ohio,  at  the  mouth  of  Kentucky,  Cherokee,  or  what  by  the 
English  is  called  Louisa  River. ' '  This  calling  of  the  Kentucky  River  by  the 
name  Louisa  was  caused  by  a  misapprehension.  It  was  not  certainly  known 
what  river  had  been  called  Louisa  by  Dr.  Walker,  as  he  traced  none  of  the 
rivers,  which  he  named,  to  the  Ohio.  But  that  he  did  not  call  the  Kentucky 
River  Louisa  is  shown  by  Lewis  Evans's  Map,  1775,  on  which  the  Louisa 

and  preserve  such  information  pertaining  to  that  subject 
as  I  could  find.  I  knew  personally  many  pioneers  of  that 
country;  some  of  them  were  of  my  own  family.  Some  of 
these  old  people  could  give  little  of  value.  Others  could 
recite  connected  and  interesting  narratives  covering  the 
events  of  three-fourths  of  a  century.  Many  of  them  had 
been  through  the  stirring  times  of  the  early  settlements 
made  in  the  country  about  the  New  River  and  the  head 
ivaters  of  the  Clinch  and  the  Holston.  Of  these  events 
they  told  me. 

Tradition  alone  does  not  constitute  sufficient  authority 
for  positive  historical  statements.  When,  however,  tra- 
dition is  found  ivell  defined  and  uniform  as  to  material 
facts  throughout  a  large  district  it  always  preserves  valua- 
ble material  for  the  historian,  and  very  frequently  it  is 
found  to  be  more  reliable  than  written  annals.  As  a  con- 
firmatory medium  it  often  renders  the  writer  the  highest 
service.  In  that  capacity  I  have  availed  myself  of  its 
assistance  in  preparing  this  account  of  the  founding  of 
Harman's  Station.  The  sources  of  my  authority  are  far 
above  mere  traditional  declarations.  The  pioneers  gave 
me  information  of  events  of  which  they  had,  in  many  in- 
stances, personal  knowledge,  and  all  the  events  of  ivhich 
they  spoke  ivere  so  recent  that  their  knowledge  of  them 
may  properly  be  considered  personal. 

In  all  matters  concerning  Mrs.  Jennie  Wiley  I  have  fol- 
loived  the  account  given  me  by  her  son,  Adam  P.  Wiley. 
There  are  several  reasons  ivhy  I  have  adhered  to  his  state- 
ments in  that  matter.    I  knew  him  intimately  and  long, 

Biver  is  marJced  as  flowing  into  the  Great  Kanawha,  and  the  upper  course  of 
the  "Tottery  or  Big  Sandy  C."  is  marked  "FredericTc  B."  Frederick's 
River  was  discovered  and  named  hy  Dr.  Walker  on  the  Sd  of  June,  1750, 
five  days  before  he  discovered  and  named  the  Louisa  Eivcr,  and  as  it  is  now 
known  that  the  Louisa  Biver  does  not  flow  into  the  Great  Kanaivha,  it  fol- 
lows that  the  west  branch  of  the  Big  Sandy  Biver  ivas  the  stream  upon  xvhich 
Br.  Walker  bestowed  the  name  Louisa. 

Bev.  Zephaniah  Meek  wrote  me  from  Catlettsburg,  Kentucky,  November 
19,  1895,  as  follows:  "I  called  on  Capt.  Owens  yesterday,  formerly  of  Pike 
county,  and  asked  him  the  origin  of  the  name  Levisa  as  applied  to  the  west 
fork  of  the  Big  Sandy.     He  says  that  i?i  the  early  settlement  of  this  part  of 

and  I  never  heard  his  reputation  for  truth  and  veracity 
brought  into  question.  He  was  a  minister  of  the  Gospel. 
His  mijid  was  a  storehouse  of  history  afid  horder  story. 
He  possessed  fine  oratorical  and  conversational  powers. 
His  memory  was  wonderful  and  it  was  not  impaired  by  the 
great  age  to  which  he  lived.  He  was  thirty-three  when  his 
mother  died.  His  opportunity  for  exact  knowledge  of 
what  did  actually  transpire  was  far  superior  to  that  of  any 
other  pioneer  living  into  my  generation.  When  I  saw 
him  last  he  was  past  eighty,  but  he  was  erect  and  only 
slightly  gray.  He  knew  personally  a  number  of  the  Lo?ig 
Hunters.  He  knew  the  Ingles  family  and  could  give  a 
better  account  of  the  captivity  and  escape  of  Mrs.  Mary 
Ingles  than  I  have  ever  found  in  any  published  work.  He 
was  perfectly  familiar  ivith  the  topography  of  all  the  coun- 
try over  luhich  his  mother  was  carried  captive,  and  this 
enabled  him  to  identify  localities  and  make  his  narrative 
complete  and  explicit.  It  is  possible  he  may  have  been  in 
error  in  some  minor  matters.  It  ivas  long  my  opinion 
that  Mrs.  Wiley  could  not  have  marched  to  the  Tug  River 
in  the  time  allowed  by  Mr.  Wiley.  But  he  insisted  that  he 
was  right,  and  knowing  the  iron  endurance  of  the  pioneer 
men  and  ivomen  it  came  to  be  my  conviction  that  Mrs. 
Wiley  did  make  this  march  in  the  time  stated.  I  was 
doubtful,  too,  of  the  ability  of  the  Indians  to  cross  the  Tug 
and  the  Louisa  rivers  with  Mrs.  Wiley  in  the  manner  de- 
scribed by  Mr.  Wiley.  Since  then,  however,  I  have  become 
ivell  acquainted  ivith  members  of  the  Wyandot,  Shawnee, 
Delaiuare,  and  Cherokee  tribes,  and  have  seen  them  per- 

the  State,  a  French  trader  hy  the  name  of  Le  Visa  came  to  tchat  is  now 
Louisa,  and  oiving  to  some  experiences  of  his,  that  fork  came  to  be  called  after 
his  name,  hence,  Americanized  Levisa. ' ' 

There  may  have  been  a  French  trader  at  the  forks  of  the  Big  Sandy  by  the 
name  of  Le  Visa,  but  the  word  of  Captain  Owens  is  all  the  evidence  I  have 
found  of  that  fact.  If  there  was  s^ich  a  trader  he  was  not  prominent  enough 
to  change  the  name  of  a  river  ar  to  have  his  name  attach  to  it.  The  i  in 
French  is  e  in  English.  Anglicised,  the  Frenchman's  name  would  have  been 
Levesay  or  Levesy.  Levisa  could  not  possibly  have  come  from  it.  The  ex- 
pla7}ation  of  Captain  Oicens  is  a  very  improbable  one. 

John  P.  Hale,  in  his  Trans-Allegheny  Pioneers  says:     "The  La  Visa,  or 

form  feats  in  swiftly  running  water  much  more  marvelous 
than  that  pictured  by  Mr.  Wiley.  In  the  matter  of  dates 
I  have  invariably  followed  Mr.  Wiley.  I  believe  it  was 
sound  judgment  to  do  so.  There  are  many  circumstances 
to  corroborate  him,  among  the  strongest  being  the  mention 
of  Barman's  Station  in  the  map  published  by  Imlay  in 

Mr.  Wiley  ivas  very  anxious  that  the  exact  account  of 
his  mother's  captivity  and  escape  should  be  preserved. 
Although  deficient  in  the  matter  of  education  he  did  try 
more  than  once  to  write  it  out.  So  unsatisfactory  ivere 
his  efforts  that  he  did  not  preserve  them.  He  exacted 
from  me  a  promise  that  I  would  ivrite  the  account  of  the 
trials  and  sufferings  of  his  mother.  This  is  the  fulfilment 
of  that  promise.  I  have  performed  the  ivork  to  the  best 
of  my  ability.  I  believe  there  ivill  be  found  no  great  er- 
rors, though  I  realize  that  I  may  hai^e  fallen  into  minor 
mistakes.  If  it  should  turn  out  so,  I  am  confident  any 
fault  discovered  will  prove  unimportant  and  immaterial. 

Mrs.  Wiley  has  many  descendants  living  in  Kentucky 
and  West  Virginia.  The  Indians  murdered  her  brother 
and  five  of  her  children.  After  her  return  from  captivity 
to  her  husband  there  were  five  children  born  to  them  — 
Hezekiah,  Jane,  Sarah,  Adam,  and  William. 

Hezekiah  married  Christine  Nelson,  of  Lawrence  Coun- 
ty; moved  to  Wayne  County,  West  Virginia,  and  settled 
on  Twelve  Pole  Creek;  died  near  his  old  home  while  on  a 
visit,  in  1882. 

Levisa,  fork  is  said  to  mean  the  picture,  design,  or  representation.  It  was 
so  called  hy  an  early  French  explorer  in  that  region,  from  Indian  pictures  or 
signs,  painted  on  trees,  near  the  head  of  the  stream." 

These  painted  trees  rvere  to  be  found  in  early  times  all  along  the  Louisa 
River  from  the  mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek,  ivhere  they  were  most  numerous, 
to  its  head.  Christopher  Gist  was  on  the  Pound  Biver  in  1751.  The  entry 
in  his  Journal  for  Wednesday,  April  3,  is  as  follows:  "  .  .  .  to  a  small 
Creek  on  which  was  a  large  Warriors  camp,  that  would  contain  10  or  80 
Warriors,  their  Captains  Name  or  Title  was  the  Crane,  as  I  knew  by  his 
Picture  or  Arms  painted  on  a  tree."  Darlington  says:  "This  was  on 
the  .<itream  called  Indian  Creek,  the  middle  fork  of  the  Big  Sandy,  in  Wise 

Jane  married  Richard  Williamson;  also  settled  on 
Twelve  Pole  Creek;  died  there. 

Sarah  married  first  Christian  Yost;  moved  to  Wayne 
County,  West  Virginia.  There,  after  the  death  of  her  first 
husband,  she  married  Samuel  Murray;  died  March  10, 

Both  Adam  and  William  left  families  in  Johnson  Coun- 
ty, Kentucky. 

The  full  name  of  Adam  luas  Adam  Prevard  Wiley. 
Prevard  was  a  mispronunciation  of  Brevard.  Mrs. 
Wiley  was  related  by  blood  to  the  North  Carolina  family 
of  that  name.  That  is  ivhy  she  gave  the  name  to  her  son. 
The  name  was  often  erroneously  written  Prevard,  and 
even  Pervard. 

Mr.  Wiley  gave  Matthias  Barman  due  credit  for  intelli- 
gent leadership  as  this  work  ivill  shoiv.  He  believed  few 
men  on  the  border  ever  equaled  Matthias  Harman  in  In- 
dian warfare  and  ivoodcraft. 

Like  all  people  who  divell  in  rural  communities  Mr. 
Wiley  kept  himself  tvell  informed  on  all  subjects  of  local 
lore.  He  kneiv  the  locality  from  ivhich  almost  every  fam- 
ily had  emigrated  to  Kentucky,  and  he  knew  what  families 
had  intermarried  both  before  and  after  they  left  Virginia. 
He  knew  the  number  of  children  of  most  of  the  pioneers, 
their  names,  and  when  they  ivere  born.  To  this  day  ivhen 
a  number  of  Big  Sandy  Valley  people  meet  they  discuss 
the  intermarriages  of  various  families  of  their  acquaint- 
ance, when  they  occurred,  ivhen  and  where  the  contracting 
parties  were  born,  where  the  families  came  from  to  Keu- 

County.  The  Crane  was  a  totem  or  badge  of  one  of  the  Miami  tribes;  also 
of  the  Wyandots.  A  common  practice  among  the  Indian  tribes,  u-ilh  war 
parties  at  a  distance  from  home,  urns  to  paint  on  trees  or  a  rock  figures  of 
tvarriors,  prisoners,  animals,  etc.,  as  intelligible  to  other  Indians  as  a  printed 
handbill  among  the  whites."  Darlington  is  in  error  when  he  says  there  was 
a  totem  of  the  Crane  among  the  Wyandots.  But  they  had  a  chief  named 
Tarhe,  or  the  Crane,  tcho  was  old  enough  in  1751  to  have  led  a  hunting  party 
or  even  a  war  party  into  the  wilderness.  He  became  head  chief  of  the  Wyan- 
dots on  the  death  of  the  Half  King. 

It  might  be  possible  that  these  many^  patintings  suggested  to  some  of  the 
early  explorers  and  hunters  some  .tuch  name  for  this  .ftrcam  as  Device  Fork, 

tuchy,  and  every  other  feature  of  the  matter.  The  work 
on  the  history  of  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  by  Dr.  William 
Ely  is  made  up  of  family  genealogies.  Rev.  M.  T.  Burris 
wrote  for  me  a  manuscript  of  almost  one  hundred  pages 
on  the  history  of  the  Valley ;  nine-tenths  of  it  is  genealogy. 
I  have  been  collecting  information  along  that  same  line  for 
forty  years  and  am  still  at  it.  I  believe  I  have  material 
from  which  can  be  constructed  a  genealogical  record  of  the 
people  of  that  valley  ivhich  ivill  be  more  complete  than  can 
possibly  be  made  of  any  other  district  in  America  of  equal 
age  and  area. 

This  is  a  beginning  in  the  work  of  ivriting  the  history  of 
Eastern  Kentucky.  I  am  confident  that  no  other  part  of 
the  State  has  a  more  interesting  history  than  that  of  the 
Big  Sandy  Valley.  When  the  full  record  is  made  up  it  ivill 
show  that  Eastern  Kentucky  ivas  settled  almost  exclusive- 
ly by  men  ivho  served  in  the  patriot  armies  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, and  that  no  other  community  of  equal  size  had  so 
great  a  proportion  of  those  heroic  men.  I  mention  that 
fact  at  this  time  because  malice  and  ignorance  in  the  "blue 
grass  region"  delight  to  speak  in  disparaging  terms  of  the 
ancestry  of  the  mountaineer.  The  blood  of  the  mountain- 
eer is  the  purest  on  the  continent,  and  his  language  is  the 
purest  Anglo-Saxon  speech  to  be  found  in  America. 

William  Elsey  Connelley 
816  Lincoln  Street,  Topeka,  Kansas, 
July  7,  1910 

or  Device  River,  or  Devices  Fork,  or  Devices  River,  and  that  such  name  or 
names  finally  assumed  the  form  of  Levisa  Fork,  etc.  This  is  only  suggested 
as  a  remotely  possible  origin  of  the  name  Levisa.  It  is  far-fetched;  there  is 
no  prohaiility  at  all  that  such  is  the  origin  of  the  name.  That  Levisa  is  a 
corruption  of  Louisa  may  be  accepted  as  beyond  dispute  or  question. 

Dr.  Walker  gave  this  river  the  name  Louisa  in  honor  of  Louisa,  the  wife 
of  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  it  is  said.  Louisa  is  a  good  old  English  ncme, 
coming  down  from  a  more  ancient  people.  It  is  a  name  of  much  beauty,  and 
it  was  iyi  great  favor  with  our  ancestors.  It  should  be  restored  to  th^  river 
to  which  Dr.  Walker  gave  it.  The  Louisa  Fork  should  be  called  the  Louisa 
River.  The  Tug  Fork  should  be  called  the  Tug  River.  The  river  formed 
by  their  junction  should  be  called  the  Big  Sandy  River. 



Preface          .... 



Harman's  Station     . 



The  Connelly  Family 



John  Wesley  Langley 

.       150 


Milton  Forrest  Conley 

.       153 



.       155 


Index             .... 



Arms  of  the  Connelly  Family              .             .         .  .93 

Battle  with  Indians  at  the  Hunting  Camp              .  .         28 

Blockhouse  Bottom,  View  of            ...  .       104 
Conley,  Constantino,  Junior              .... 

I.     Portrait   of        .             .             .             .  .144 

II.     Standing  on  Site  of  Blockhouse            .  .       148 

Conley,  Milton  Forrest,  Portrait  of              .             .  .       153 

Connelly,  Dr.  Henry,  Portrait  of     .             .             .  .96 

Falls  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek  in  Winter      .             .  .54 

Finding  the  Trail  of  the  Indians      .             .             .  .64 

Indians  on  River  Bank         .             .             .             .  .90 

Langley,  John  "Wesley,  Portrait  of                            .  .       150 
Maps  — 

I.     State  of  Kentucky,  from  Imlay           .  .         10 

II.     Country  About  Falls  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek          50 

III.     Showing  Route  of  Mrs.  Wiley's  Escape  .         78 
Sellards,  Hezekiah,  Colony  of.  Moving  to  Walker's  Creek        20 

Settlers  on  their  way  to  Build  the  Blockhouse      .  .        34 

Torture  of  the  Captive         .             .             .             .  .58 
Vancouver's  Post,  1789        .....         68 

Wiley  Cabin  on  Walker's  Creek      .             .             .  .26 
Wiley,  Mrs.  Jennie  — 

I.     Carried  into  the  Wilderness    .             .  .38 

II.     Trying  to  Escape  with  Her  Child        .  .        42 

III.     Indians  Crossing  Tug  River  with        .  .         46 

IV.     Rescuing  Her  Child      .             .             .  .48 

V.     Tied  to  the  Stake  for  Torture              .  .        60 

VI.     Dream  of          ...            .  Frontispiece 

VII.     Crossing  the  River  with  Skaggs  .         74 

VIII.     Escape  of  from  the  Indians      .  .80 

IX.     Calling  Across  the  River  for  Help        .  .         84 

X.     At  the  Mouth  of  Little  Paint  Creek      .  .        88 


By  virtue  of  conquest  the  Iroquois  claimed  all  the 
country  between  the  Ohio  and  the  Tennessee.  They  could 
not  themselves  occupy  the  land  they  had  conquered.  Other 
tribes  stood  in  terror  of  them  and  did  not  encroach  upon 
the  territory  to  which  they  laid  claim.  Consequently  few 
aboriginal  settlements  were  found  in  what  is  now  the 
State  of  Kentucky.  Alien  tribes  seem  to  have  roamed 
over  it  in  search  of  game.  Hostile  nations  sometimes 
met  in  the  gloom  of  its  great  forests  in  deadly  conflict. 
It  came  to  be  regarded  as  the  common  battle  ground.  In 
time  the  Cherokees  formulated  a  shadowy  claim  to  a  por- 
tion of  it  which  they  disposed  of  to  Henderson  and  his  as- 
sociates. This  gave  the  English  an  ambiguous  title  to  the 
soil  which  was  never  relinquished,  although  the  French 
appealed  to  arms  in  contention  for  possession  of  the  Ohio 
Valley.  The  defeat  of  Braddock  left  the  English  frontiers 
without  protection  from  savage  bands.  Frequent  and 
bloody  invasions  followed,  and  these  were  not  ended  by 
the  final  triumph  of  the  English.  The  French  inhabitants 
of  Canada  passed  under  the  dominion  of  a  government 
against  which  they  bore  the  deepest  enmity.  The  result 
was  the  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac,  which  carried  the  torch, 
the  tomahawk,  and  the  scalping-knife  into  the  frontier 
settlements  from  Pennsylvania  to  Georgia.  Painted  war- 
riors lurked  on  the  skirts  of  every  frontier  community, 
save  for  brief  intermissions,  for  the  next  thirty  years. 
Blazing  cabin-homes  in  the  red  glare  of  which  lay  mur- 
dered and  scalped  families,  captive  wives  and  daughters 
led  away  into  the  wilderness  to  degradation  worse  than 


death,  fathers  and  sons  tortured  at  the  stake  —  these  were 
common  occurrences  all  along  the  western  borders  of  the 
English  settlements  until  the  peace  of  Greenville  in  1795. 

To  oppose,  and,  so  far  as  possible,  to  prevent  these 
atrocities,  and  to  occasionally  perpetrate  similar  or  more 
horrible  ones  upon  the  Indians,  there  was  developed  that 
class  of  hardy  backwoodsmen,  hunters,  adventurers,  rifle- 
men, and  forest-rangers  who  traversed  the  wilderness 
beyond  the  confines  of  civilization  and  afforded  what  pro- 
tection they  could  to  the  exposed  and  defenseless  pio- 

In  1763  the  line  defining  the  frontier  extended  from 
Ingles 's  Ferry  on  the  New  River  to  the  Susquehanna.  It 
followed  along  the  crest  of  that  range  of  the  Alleghanies 
which  separates  the  waters  of  the  Ohio  from  the  head 
branches  of  the  Potomac  and  the  James.  Fort  Pitt  was 
an  outpost  far  beyond  the  remotest  settlements.  A  few 
pioneers  were  to  be  found  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Mon- 
ongahela  and  other  tributaries  of  the  Ohio.^  South  and 
southwest  from  Ingles 's  Ferry  there  were  at  that  time  no 
settlements  of  English-speaking  folk  west  of  the  Allegha- 
nies on  the  borders  of  Virginia  or  the  Carolinas.  A  chance 
settler  or  an  occasional  hunter,  all  trace  of  whom  is  now 

2  '  *  They  were  a  distinct,  peculiar  class,  marked  with  striking  con- 
trasts of  good  and  evil.  Many,  though  by  no  means  all,  were  coarse, 
audacious  and  unscrupulous;  yet  even  in  the  worst,  one  might  often  have 
found  a  vigorous  growth  of  warlike  virtues,  an  iron  endurance,  an  undespair- 
ing  courage,  a  wondrous  sagacity,  and  singular  fertility  of  resource.  In  them 
was  renewed,  with  all  its  ancient  energy,  that  wild  and  daring  spirit,  that 
force  and  hardihood  of  mind,  which  marked  our  barbarous  ancestors  of 
Germany  and  Norway. ' ' —  Parkman,  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac,  Vol.  I,  p.  158. 

3  In  his  Journal  Dr.  Thomas  Walker  mentions  one  Samuel  Stalnacker 
whom  he  assisted  to  build  a  house  on  the  Holston  River  in  1750.  He  seems 
to  have  been  an  Indian  trader  and  to  have  been  in  this  region  for  a  number 
of  years  previous  to  that  date;  but  the  house  he  built  in  1750  never,  so  far 
as  we  know,  became  the  nucleus  of  any  permanent  community.  One  James 
McCall  is  also  mentioned  by  Dr.  Walker  as  living  west  of  the  New  River  in 
1750.  A  colony  of  ' '  Duncards  ' '  lived  on  the  west  bank  of  the  New 
River  at  Ingles 's  Ferry  in  1750,  so  Dr.  Walker  says  in  his  Journal. 


lost  to  us,  may  previously  have  taken  up  his  abode  in  those 
regions.  To  the  line  indicated  the  vanguard  of  the  Eng- 
lish advance  had  pushed.  Beyond  lay  the  wilderness, 
deep,  dark,  dangerous,  unexplored,  unknown,  but  with  a 
fascination  wholly  irresistible.  Mongrel  hordes  of  paint- 
ed savages  wandered  through  its  forest  reaches  in  search 
of  the  buffalo,  the  deer,  the  bear,  and  often  in  stealthy  and 
deadly  search  for  one  another. 

Here  was  a  land  having  the  inherent  capacity  for  the 
development  and  maintenance  of  an  empire  unpeopled 
and  wrapped  in  the  unbroken  silence  of  perpetual  soli- 
tude. It  was  a  desirable  land,  a  land  of  plenty  for  even 
barbarians.  Food  was  easily  obtained  by  them,  for  un- 
numbered thousands  of  the  American  bison  congregated 
on  the  treeless  plains  of  the  Illinois  and  the  Ohio,  and 
herds  of  deer  wandered  in  the  sunless  mazes  of  the  forest- 
clad  ranges  of  the  Cumberland  and  the  Alleghanies.  It 
was  a  land  of  enchanting  beauty.  Savage  tribes  of 
barbarians  contended  for  it.  The  contumelious  French- 
man buried  leaden  plates  upon  the  wooded  shores  of  its 
principal  rivers  in  defiant  challenge  to  the  further  advance 
of  the  stubborn  Briton  who  was  slowly  but  irresistibly 
pushing  deeper  and  deeper  into  it  from  his  compact  hab- 
itat along  the  Atlantic  seaboard  with  the  immutable  pur- 
poses of  conquest  and  occupancy. 


Hezekiah  Sellards  was  a  Scotch-Irish  pioneer  in  the 
Upper  Shenandoah  Valley.  He  moved  into  that  country 
from  Pennsylvania.  He  built  his  cabin  twenty  miles  from 
the  nearest  neighbor.  He  was  a  typical  settler  and  a  gen- 
uine frontiersman  and  backwoodsman.  The  location  of 
his  residence  in  the  Valley  cannot  now  be  determined  with 
any  degree  of  certainty.  It  was  in  the  mountains  about 
the  sources  of  the  Shenandoah  River.  It  was  in  a  com- 
munity where  many  Presbyterians  afterward  settled. 
Sellards  himself  was  a  Presbyterian  of  the  strictest  sort. 
He  was  a  man  of  strong  character  and  sterling  worth. 
He  was  of  such  standing  in  his  church  that  in  the  absence 
of  the  minister  he  could  hold  the  services,  and  he  often 
preached  to  congregations  which  assembled  in  his  house 
upon  his  invitation.  For  his  time  and  place  he  was  a  man 
of  considerable  property,  industry,  economy  and  thrift 
being  strong  characteristics  of  the  old  woodsman.  He 
was  a  man  of  some  learning,  and  at  considerable  trouble 
and  expense  he  had  his  children  instructed  in  the  common 
elementary  branches.  His  children  were  strictly  trained 
in  that  severity  of  morals  exacted  of  the  old  Covenanters. 
These  religious  principles  were  the  foundation  upon  which 
they  were  expected  to  build  correct  lives. 

The  above  makes  up  the  sum  total  of  what  is  known  of 
Hezekiah  Sellards  in  his  residence  on  the  Shenandoah. 
In  addition  to  his  farming  he  was  a  hunter.  In  company 
with  his  neighbors  he  made  annual  journeys  into  forests 
beyond  the  New  River.  The  object  of  the  hunter  in  those 
days  was  as  much  to  find  a  desirable  place  in  which  to  lo- 
cate when  next  he  determined  to  move  as  to  secure  meat 




and  skins.  A  more  charming  country  than  the  western 
highlands  of  Virginia  would  be  difficult  indeed  to  find. 
Sellards  and  his  associates  hunted  in  that  region  about 
the  head  of  Wolf  Creek,  and  along  Walker's  Creek,  going 
sometimes  to  the  Clinch  and  the  Holston.  Their  choice 
of  locality  finally  fell  upon  W^alker's  Creek  and  Walker's 
Mountain.  Long  before  it  was  safe  to  do  so,  perhaps  be- 
fore 1760,  a  colony  of  which  Sellards  was  a  member  and 
perhaps  the  leader  settled  about  Walker's  Mountain.  The 
date  is  not  definite,  but  they  were  beset  by  Indians  for 
thirty  years.  In  their  migration  to  their  new  home  they 
drove  their  flocks  and  herds  before  them  and  carried  their 
wives  and  children  and  their  household  effects  upon  pack- 

The  names  of  the  other  families  of  this  western  migra- 
tion are  not  now  positively  known.  It  is  probable  that  the 
Staffords,  Porters,  Damrons,  and  others  now  represented 
in  the  Eastern  Kentucky  families  came  into  that  part  of 
Virginia  with  Hezekiah  Sellards.  The  number  of  persons 
and  families  cannot  now  be  told,  but  prudence  demanded 
that  settlers  going  into  the  wilderness  should  go  in  suffi- 
cient force  to  withstand  the  Indian  bands  by  which  they 
were  sure  to  be  assailed.  Sellards  and  his  associates  con- 
formed to  the  type  found  all  along  the  frontier.  They 
were  soldiers  as  well  as  settlers.  They  were  armed  with 
the  old,  long,  heavy,  hair-trigger,  flint-lock  rifle,  and  with 
that  rude  weapon  their  aim  was  true  and  deadly.  In  wood- 
craft they  could  circUmvent  the  Indian.  They  were  cool, 
positive,  confident,  alert,  courageous,  resourceful,  and 

Before  going  on  with  the  work  in  hand  it  will  be  profit- 
able to  note  a  few  features  of  backwoods  life.  The  pio- 
neers were  their  own  tanners,  harness-makers  and  shoe- 
makers. They  built  their  own  houses  and  made  their  own 
furniture  and  agricultural  implements.     Salt  and  iron 


were  indispensable  and  had  to  be  brought  in  upon  pack- 
horses  from  the  stations  or  older  settlements  where  they 
were  purchased  with  skins,  furs,  dried  venison,  and  gin- 
seng. Both  were  used  sparingly.  Often  a  cabin  was  com- 
pleted without  there  being  a  single  nail,  bolt,  or  spike  used 
in  its  construction.  Flax  and  cotton  were  grown  by  al- 
most every  settler.  These  with  the  wool  from  the  few 
sheep  that  escaped  the  wolves  furnished  material  for  cloth 
which  was  woven  in  looms  in  the  pioneer  homes.  The 
feathers  of  ducks  and  geese  furnished  beds  which  found  so 
much  favor  that  they  have  not  been  discarded  to  this  day. 
Clothing  for  the  women  was  home  spun,  home  woven,  and 
home  made,  coarse,  but  substantial  and  comfortable.  That 
of  the  men  was  of  the  same  manufacture  and  often  sup- 
plemented with  skins,  dressed  and  not  dressed.  The 
fringed  hunting-shirt  and  leggins,  fur  cap  and  moccasins, 
made  a  picturesque  garb,  and  for  the  scout,  guide,  hunter, 
trapper,  explorer,  or  any  other  dweller  in  the  wilderness 
it  was  the  most  appropriate  that  could  have  been  devised. 

For  food  the  pioneer  depended  upon  Indian  corn,  his 
hogs,  and  the  fruits  of  the  chase.  The  cornfields  sur- 
rounded every  cabin.  Bacon  was  the  favorite  meat.  Vege- 
tables and  fruits  grew  quickly  and  of  fine  quality ;  many  ed- 
ible fruits  were  found  growing  wild.  Coffee  was  unknown, 
and  tea  was  unheard  of;  substitutes  were  made  from 
spicewood  and  sassafras.  Chickens,  turkeys,  ducks,  and 
geese  were  found  about  most  cabins. 

The  division  of  labor  was  not  so  distinct  as  it  is  now. 
Women  often  worked  in  the  field,  plied  the  axe,  sheared 
the  sheep,  pulled  the  flax,  plucked  the  feathers  from  the 
geese  and  ducks  and  frequently  did  effective  service 
with  the  rifle.  These  things  were  in  addition  to  their  or- 
dinary work  of  preparing  food,  spinning  and  dyeing 
thread  and  yarn,  weaving  cloth  therefrom,  making  the 
clothing,  and  attending  to  many  other  affairs  amid  all  the 


cares  and  anxieties  incident  to  rearing  large  families  on 
an  exposed  and  dangerous  frontier.* 

*  The  manner  of  living  here  described  had  not  entirely  changed  in 
Eastern  Kentucky  even  in  1875.  Many  of  the  features  here  described 
remained  in  the  home  of  my  grandfather,  Henry  Connelly,  Esq.,  who  lived 
on  the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek,  Johnson  County,  until  his  death 
in  1877.  Most  of  the  cloth  for  the  clothing  of  himself  and  his  fam- 
ily was  made  by  my  aunts  from  cotton,  flax  and  wool  produced  on  his 
farm.  I  often  assisted  in  this  manufacture  when  a  child.  I  could  spin  on 
the  "  big  wheel,"  fill  the  "  quills  "  for  the  shuttles  used  in  weaving,  and 
I  have  "  reeled  "  thread  and  yarn,  much  against  my  will,  sometimes,  I 
must  say,  until  my  arms  ached.  My  grandfather  raised  on  his  farm  his 
own  com  and  wheat.  He  raised  cattle,  hogs,  and  horses.  He  cured  his 
own  bacon  and  dried  and  cured  his  omti  beef.  He  manufactured  most  of 
the  agricultural  implements  used  on  his  farm.  He  had  large  orchards.  For 
more  than  forty  years  he  made  his  own  sugar  from  the  maples  growing 
on  his  land.  He  manufactured  his  own  cheese.  He  was  an  industrious  and 
independent  American  citizen,  and  his  manner  of  life  was  the  best.  A  re- 
turn to  it  by  the  people  would  solve  many  serious  questions  now  troubling 
the  Eepublic. 



Hezekiah  Sellards  had  a  large  family,  but  all  his  chil- 
dren save  four  died  before  they  were  grown  up.  Two  of 
his  sons,  Thomas  and  Jack,  lived  on  the  Buffalo  Fork  of 
John's  Creek  and  died  there,  each  at  a  great  age.^  One 
daughter  married  John  Borders,  a  British  soldier  who 
served  under  Cornwallis  and  was  captured  at  Yorktown. 
During  his  service  he  had  come  to  believe  in  America  and 
in  her  cause  and  had  resolved  to  make  this  country  his 
home  as  soon  as  he  could  secure  his  discharge  from  the 
army.  It  is  said  that  he  had  acquainted  his  officers  of  his 
intention.  After  the  surrender  of  Cornwallis  Borders 
soon  contrived  to  be  released,  and  he  went  immediately  to 
the  back  settlements  of  Virginia  to  begin  life  in  his  adopt- 
ed country.  There  he  met  and  married  a  daughter  of  Hez- 
ekiah Sellards.  He  was  an  excellent  man  in  every  respect, 
so  it  is  said.  From  his  marriage  with  Miss  Sellards  are 
descended  several  families  living  now  in  Eastern  Ken- 
tucky, one  of  the  most  numerous  and  respectable  being  that 
of  Borders.*^ 

The  remaining  daughter  of  Hezekiah  Sellards  was  Jean, 
familiarly  called  by  her  family  and  others  Jennie  Sellards. 
Her  son  informed  me  that  she  had  black  hair  through 
which  ran  a  tinge  of  auburn  in  her  youth.    Others  say  her 

5  Stated  on  the  authority  of  Adam  P.  Wiley,  also  Eev.  M.  T.  Burris,  now 
of  Golden,  Mo.  Mr.  Burris  writes  me  that  he  knew  these  brothers.  He  was 
born  and  brought  up  in  the  Leslie  Settlement  on  John's  Creek,  and  is  a  de- 
scendant of  the  pioneer  Leslie. 

6  The  descendants  of  John  Borders  live  now  mainly  in  Lawrence  and 
Johnson  counties,  Kentucky.  They  are  scattered  over  all  the  Mississippi 
Valley.  Wliile  many  of  them  were  farmers,  they  usually  followed  commer- 
cial life  and  were  very  successful. 


hair  was  coal  black,  and  they  saw  her  many  times  and  had 
opportunity  to  know.  All  agree  that  she  was  strong  and 
capable  of  great  exertion  and  great  endurance.  Until  past 
middle  life  she  was  of  fine  forai  and  her  movements  were 
quick.  In  her  old  age  she  became  heavy  and  slow.  She 
had  then,  too,  heavy  overhanging  brows.  Her  eyes  were 
black.  She  was  above  medium  height.  Her  face  was 
agreeable  and  indicated  superior  intelligence.  She  was 
persistent  and  detemiined  in  any  matter  she  had  decided 
to  accomplish.  She  labored  in  her  father's  fields.  She 
was  familiar  with  eveiy  feature  of  woodcraft  and  was  a 
splendid  shot  with  the  rifle ;  even  after  she  settled  in  the 
Big  Sandy  Valley  it  required  an  expert  to  equal  her.  Be- 
fore her  marriage  she  had  killed  bears,  wolves,  panthers 
and  other  wild  animals.  She  was  at  home  in  the  woods 
and  could  hold  her  way  over  the  trails  of  the  country 
either  by  day  or  by  night.  She  was  endowed  with  an 
abundance  of  good  hard  Scotch  common-sense.  In  spin- 
ning, weaving,  and  other  work  of  the  household  she  was 
proficient.  I  have  set  down  what  her  son  said  about  her. 
Most  of  it  was  confirmed  by  other  witnesses.  Her  son  in- 
sisted that  until  age  began  to  tell  on  her  she  was  a  hand- 
some woman.^ 

Captain  Matthias  Hamian  lived  on  Walker's  Creek  and 
not  a  great  distance  from  Hezekiah  Sellards.  He  was 
familiar  with  all  the  country  along  the  frontier  and  this 

7  Eev.  M.  T.  Burris  says  ' '  she  was  rather  dark  skinned,  dark  hair 
and  heavy  eye  bones. ' '  He  also  says  that  Thomas  Lewis,  a  pioneer  in 
the  Big  Sandy  Valley  who  knew  Mrs.  Wiley  well,  told  him  that  ghe  "  had 
dark  hair,  rather  heavy  eyebones,  and  dark  eyebrows. ' '  Joseph  Kelley 
was  also  a  pioneer  in  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  and  knew  Mrs.  Wiley  well;  he 
told  Mr.  Burris  that  she  had  dark  hair.  Mr.  Burris  says  that  her  brothers, 
Thomas  and  Jack  Sellards,  had  black  or  dark  hair.  Mr.  Burris  did  not 
know  Mrs.  Wiley.  Adam  P.  Wiley  was  dark  of  skin,  and  his  hair  was 
black.  My  great  grandmother,  Mrs.  Susan  Connelly,  knew  Mrs.  Wiley  well; 
she  told  me  that  Mrs.  Wiley  had  very  dark  hair,  was  tall,  handsome  form 
and  face  until  old  age  made  her  heavy  and  slow,  very  intelligent,  kindly 
disposition  but  firm  and  determined,  and  a  devout  and  earnest  Christian 


brought  his  services  into  demand  by  persons  seeking  new 
lands  suitable  for  settlements.  It  is  said  that  in  the  spring 
if  1777  he  led  a  number  of  settlers  from  Strasburg,  Vir- 
ginia, to  Ab's  Valley.  Thomas  and  Samuel  Wiley  were 
members  of  this  party.  They  were  brothers,  recently  ar- 
rived from  the  north  of  Ireland.  Samuel  Wiley  settled  in 
Ab's  Valley,  but  Thomas  remained  at  the  home  of  Captain 
Harman,  of  whom  he  finally  purchased  a  tract  of  land. 
This  tract  of  land  was  on  a  branch  of  Walker's  Creek  im- 
mediately north  of  the  residence  of  Harman.  Wiley  built 
a  cabin  of  two  rooms  with  an  open  space  between  on  his 
land  and  cleared  a  field.  He  courted  Jennie  Sellards  and 
met  with  many  a  rebuff  from  her  father  whose  hostility 
availed  nothing,  for  Jennie  looked  with  favor  on  the  young 
man  and  they  were  married.    This  was  in  the  year  1779. 

There  is  nothing  in  the  life  of  Thomas  Wiley  and  his 
wife  essential  to  this  account  the  first  few  years  of  their 
married  life.  They  labored  to  raise  corn  and  other  crops. 
Cows  and  pigs  were  among  their  possessions.  Wiley  did 
not  become  a  good  hunter,  but  he  ranged  the  woods  in 
search  of  ginseng.  Children  were  bom  to  them.  They 
lived  the  simple  lives  of  pioneers  as  did  their  neighbors. 
And  their  neighbors  were  few  and  far  between. 

It  is  necessary  here  to  return  to  the  transactions  of 
Matthias  Harman.^  Mention  has  been  already  made  of 
the  colony  located  by  him  in  the  vicinity  of  Ab's  Valley. 

8  Matthias  Harman  was  born  in  or  near  Strasburg,  Virginia,  about 
the  year  1732.  His  father,  Heinrich  Herrmann,  came  from  Prussia 
to  Pennsylvania,  it  is  said,  and  from  thence  to  the  vicinity  of  Strasburg 
while  yet  a  young  man,  Matthias  Harman  and  his  brothers,  of  whom  he 
had  several,  early  became  hunters  and  ranged  the  woods  far  and  near. 
They  joined  every  expedition  into  the  wilderness  made  up  in  their  com- 
munity, and  it  is  said  that  their  father  also  joined  these  expeditions, 
whether  for  hunting,  exploration,  or  for  war.  The  Harmans  bore  the  In- 
dian a  bitter  hatred  and  believed  in  his  extermination.  There  came  to 
America  also,  two  brothers  of  Heinrich  Herrmann,  Adam  and  Jacob,  but 
they  came  at  a  later  date.  These  three  brothers  and  their  families  were 
among  the  first  settlers  at  Draper's  Meadows  in  1748.  Michael  Steiner  or 
Stoner,  was  a  cousin  to  Matthias  Harman,  and  was  also  an  early  settler  at 


He  made  a  number  of  such  settlements  in  the  country  west 
of  the  New  Eiver.  It  had  been  for  thirty  years  his  inten- 
tion to  make  a  settlement  at  the  mouth  of  John's  Creek 
on  the  Louisa  River  when  the  attitude  of  the  Indians 
would  permit  him  to  do  so  with  safety.  The  Indian  tribes 
beyond  the  Ohio  and  the  Cherokees  living  along  the  Little 
Tennessee  had  all  to  be  taken  into  account.  Some  vagrant 
bands  of  Cherokees  lived  also  along  the  Ohio  River  at  the 
time.  Harman  was  infatuated  with  the  Louisa  River 
country  because  game  was  more  plentiful  there  than  in 
any  other  region  of  which  he  knew.  The  great  Indian 
trails  between  the  Ohio  River  Indians  and  the  Cherokees 
and  other  southern  tribes  lay  up  the  Big  Sandy,  which  ac- 
counts for  the  fact  that  the  Indians  roamed  that  country 
several  years  after  they  had  disappeared  from  all  other 
parts  of  Kentucky.  For  this  colony  Harman  had  enlisted 
a  number  of  his  old-time  associates  and  companions  in 
wilderness  exploration.     In  1787  he  believed  it  safe  to 

Draper's  Meadows.  It  is  said  that  Casper  Mansker,  the  famous  pioneer 
of  Tennessee,  was  in  some  degree  related  to  the  Harmans.  These  men 
■were  called  Dutchmen  by  the  early  settlers.  They  were  all  explorers  of 
the  wilderness,  and  hunting  became  a  passion  with  them.  Matthias  Har- 
man became  infatuated  with  the  life  of  the  woodsman  and  the  dangers  of 
the  frontier.  In  woodcraft  and  Indian  warfare  it  is  doubtful  if  he  ever 
had  a  superior.  He  was  one  of  the  men  employed  to  guide  the  Sandy 
Creek  Voyage,  and  tradition  says  that  if  General  Lewis  had  been  governed 
by  his  judgment  the  expedition  would  not  have  failed  of  its  purpose.  He 
and  his  Dutch  companions  and  relatives  slew  about  forty  Cherokees  who 
were  returning  home  from  assisting  the  English  against  Fort  Du  Quesne 
in  1758,  so  tradition  in  the  Harman  family  says,  and  they  justified  their 
action  by  aflSrming  that  the  Indians  had  stolen  horses  and  cattle  from  the 
settlers  along  their  route.  Tradition  in  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  said  that 
Michael  Stoner  and  Casper  Mansker  were  with  Harman  in  this  foray,  and 
that  the  party  received  pay  from  the  colony  of  Virginia  for  the  scalps  of 
the  Indians  slain  and  that  it  amounted  to  a  considerable  sum  per  man. 

These  Germans  and  explorers  with  whom  they  were  associated  became 
familiar  vrith  every  part  of  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  soon  after  settling  at 
Draper's  Meadows.  They  built  a  lodge  or  hunters'  cabin  on  the  Louisa 
River  just  below  the  mouth  of  John's  Creek  about  the  year  1755,  and  they 
went  there  to  hunt  the  deer,  elk,  buffalo,  bear,  beaver,  and  other  game 
animals  and  birds  every  year.     Matthias  Harman  appears  to  have  been  the 


establish  his  settlement,  and  it  was  agreed  that  it  should 
be  made  in  the  winter  of  1787-88. 

Harman  's  father  was  yet  living.  He  always  went  with 
the  other  jHoueers  to  hunt  in  the  Big  Sandy  Valley.  Ex- 
cejjt  for  a  few  years  during  the  Revolution  this  hunt  had 
been  made  annually  for  twenty  five  years  and  perhaps 
longer.  As  the  hunters  would  not  return  when  they  went 
out  in  the  fall  of  1787,  and  as  Harman,  senior,  was  now 
too  old  to  go  with  the  colony  and  was  desirous  of  making 
a  hunt  with  his  sons  this  year  it  was  arranged  that  a  party 
would  go  out  for  a  few  weeks  prior  to  the  departure  to 
build  the  fort  on  the  Louisa.  Where  the  hunters  made 
their  camj)  cannot  now  be  detennined.  It  was  not  far  from 
the  settlements,  and  it  appears  to  have  been  near  the  head 
waters  of  both  the  Tug  and  Louisa  rivers.  It  is  said  that 
about  twenty  hunters  went  out  in  this  party.  Henry  Har- 
man and  his  sons,  Henry  Skaggs,  James  Skaggs,  Robert 

leader.     Associated  with  him  were  Henry  Skaggs  and  James  Skaggs,  fa- 
mous hunters  and  explorers. 

Matthias  Harman  was  called  ' '  Tice  "  or  "  Tias  ' '  Harman  by  his 
companions.  He  was  diminutive  in  size,  in  height  being  but  little  more 
than  five  feet,  and  his  weight  never  exceeded  one  hundred  and  twenty 
pounds.  He  had  an  enormous  nose  and  a  thin  sharp  face.  He  had  aE 
abundance  of  hair  of  a  yellow  tinge,  beard  of  a  darker  hue,  blue  eyes 
which  anger  made  green  and  glittering,  and  a  bearing  bold  and  fearless. 
He  jiossessed  an  iron  constitution,  and  could  endure  more  fatigue  and 
privation  than  any  of  his  associates.  He  was  a  dead  shot  with  the  long 
rifle  of  his  day.  The  Indians  believed  him  in  league  with  the  devil  or 
some  other  malevolent  power  because  of  their  numbers  he  killed,  his  mirac- 
ulous escapes,  and  the  bitterness  and  relentless  daring  of  his  warfare 
against  them.  He  was  one  of  the  Long  Hunters,  as  were  others  of  the 
Hurmans,  and  more  than  once  did  his  journeys  into  the  wilderness  carry 
him  to  the  Mississippi  River.  He  and  the  other  Harmans  able  to  bear 
arms  were  in  the  Virginia  service  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution.  He  is 
said  to  liave  formed  the  colony  which  made  the  first  settlement  in  Ab's 
Valley.  He  formed  the  colony  which  made  the  first  settlement  in  Eastern 
Kentucky  and  erected  the  blockhouse.  He  brought  in  the  settlers  who  re- 
built the  blockhouse,  and  for  a  number  of  years  he  lived  in  the  Blockhouse 
liottom  or  its  vicinity.  In  his  extreme  old  age  he  returned  to  Virginia 
and  died  there.  It  is  said  he  lived  to  be  ninety-six,  but  I  have  not  the  date 
or  jdaco  of  his  death. 


Hawes,  some  of  the  Damrons,  and  a  man  named  Draper 
are  known  to  have  been  of  the  party  that  went  on  this  pre- 
liminary hunt. 

As  it  was  the  intention  of  the  hunters  to  remain  some 
time  in  the  woods  they  built  a  rough  camp  in  which  to  sleep 
and  to  shelter  their  trappings  in  case  of  rain.  The  camp 
must  have  been  near  the  Indian  highway,  for  one  day  it 
was  surprised  and  attacked  by  a  roving  band  of  Indians. 
Few  particulars  of  this  skirmish  have  been  preserved, 
though  the  memorj^  of  it  is  widespread.  It  is  said  that  the 
previous  night  had  been  rainy  and  the  morning  cloudy  and 
damp.  The  men  had  not  gone  out  early,  and  that  fortunate 
circumstance  saved  the  camp  from  destruction,  in  all  prol)- 
ability.  The  hunters  not  being  beyond  hearing  of  gun- 
shots returned  at  once,  catching  the  Indian  party  in  the 
rear  and  defeating  the  savages  in  a  short  time.  Robert 
Hawes  was  wounded  in  one  of  his  arms.  The  Indians 
were  pressing  the  party  at  the  camp  when  the  other  hunt- 
ers returned.  A  young  Cherokee,  son  of  the  chief  and 
leader,  was  armed  with  bow  and  arrows  only,  but  he  came 
near  killing  Henry  Harman  and  would  possibly  have 
done  so  had  not  Matthias  Hannan  killed  him  with  a  rifle 
shot.  The  death  of  the  Indian  boy  ended  the  fight.  The 
chief  carried  the  body  of  his  son  away  with  him.  Matthias 
Harman  recognized  the  Cherokee  chief  as  one  of  the  bold- 
est raiders  on  the  Virginia  settlements  to  be  found  in  all 
the  tribes.  He  stole  horses  all  along  the  frontier,  mur- 
dered families,  and  carried  off  plunder  of  all  kinds.  Har- 
man had  followed  him  often  and  had  met  him  in  many  a 
running  fight.  A  bitter  hatred  existed  between  the  two 
men,  and  the  Cherokee  had  tried  to  destroy  Harman 's  fam- 
ily several  times  when  Harman  was  engaged  in  scouting 
and  was  absent  from  home,  but  his  attempts  had  never 
been  successful ;  he  had  frequently  driven  off  horses  and 
cattle  belonging  to  Harman.    It  is  said  that  Harman  and 


this  chief  had  been  friends  at  one  time,  and  that  they  were 
both  o^uides  in  thQ  Sandy  Creek  Voyage.' 

^Vhen  the  Indians  disappeared  Matthias  Harman  deter- 
mined to  return  home  at  once.  He  was  certain  that  the 
Cherokee  would  fall  upon  the  settlements  and  inflict  what 
damage  he  could,  for  he  was  a  daring  marauder  and  is 
represented  to  have  been  persistent  in  the  pursuit  of  re- 

9  The  traditionary  accounts  of  this  Indian  attack  vary  much.  In  some 
of  them  little  of  what  actually  happened  can  be  found.  H.  C.  Ragland,  of 
Logan,  West  Virginia,  confuses  it  with  the  Sandy  Creek  Voyage.  Matthias 
Harman,  a  nephew  of  the  fourth  generation  from  his  famous  uncle,  for 
whom  he  was  named,  wrote  me  the  following: 

"  William  Harman  and  Aquilla  Harman  were  once  out  hunting  on  a 
very  cold  day  and  the  Indians  made  a  raid  upon  the  settlement  in  the 
Baptist  Valley  [and]  about  this  time  or  1780  gave  the  settlers  some 
trouble.  Henry  Harman  and  his  three  sons,  George  Harman,  Ed.  Harman, 
Tias  Harman.  and  a  man  by  the  name  of  Draper  followed  them  down  the 
Tug  Fork  of  Sandy  to  what  is  now  Warfield  where  they  found  the  Indians 
<am[)od  by  a  log  and  Harman  fired  on  them.     Draper  left  them. 

"  The  Indians  shot  the  old  man  Harman  in  the  breast  with  arrow  spikes 
until  he  could  not  stand  without  leaning  against  a  tree.  His  son,  George, 
loaded  his  gun  for  him.  There  he  stood  until  he  shot  six  of  the  Indians 
dead.  The  seventh  was  wounded,  ran  into  the  Tug  River  and  drowned 
himself.  " 

Rev.  M.  T.  Burris  included  the  following  account  in  the  manuscript  he 
prepared   for  me : 

"  Daniel  Harman  was  a  brother  of  Henry,  George  and  Matthias  Har- 
man, the  great  Indian  fighters  and  early  explorers  of  Tug  and  Levisa  Fork 
of  Big  Sandy.  They  had  a  terrible  battle  with  Indians  on  Tug  River,  up 
near  the  Va.  line.  They  came  upon  the  Indians  a  little  unexpected,  George 
HHrnian  commanded  his  squad,  and  the  battle  opened  in  earnest,  it  seemed 
at  first  that  the  Indians  would  be  too  much  for  them;  Harman 's  boys  said 
to  him,  '  Had  we  not  better  retreat  and  try  to  save  ourselves?  '  (A  man 
by  the  name  of  Draper  ran  at  the  first  fire.)  Harman  replied  in  a  de- 
termined voic^,  '  No!  give  them  h — 1!  When  you  see  me  fall  it  will  be 
time  to  retreat.'  At  that  word  the  boys  took  fresh  courage  and  loaded 
and  kept  blazing  away.  G.  Harman  was  a  brave  man;  the  chief  ran  up 
flow  to  him,  made  motions  to  Harman  to  throw  down  his  gun  so  he  could 
fnk<'  him  a  prisoner  but  he  would  not,  they  closed  in  a  scuffle,  they  were  so 
near  o«ninlly  yoked  in  strength  the  Indian  could  not  hold  him  down;  in 
(the]  scuffle  Harman  got  hold  of  the  Indian's  butcher  knife  that  was  in 
hlH  iM-lt.  and  began  to  use  it  in  earnest,  having  the  Indian  by  the  legs,  In- 
dian'h  lirml  down,  biting  Harman 's  legs.  Harman  stabbed  him  24  times 
before  ho  diajMitched  him,  the  others  took  to  their  heels,  as  the  Harman 
cotnpiiny  wjui  j.roving  too  much  for  them.    The  Hannans  had  a  rock  [house] 


venge,  which  it  was  believed  he  would  now  seek  for  his  son 
slain  in  battle.  The  absence  of  Hannan  and  other  rifle- 
men from  the  settlements  gave  him  an  opportunity  which 
the  hunters  believed  he  would  not  let  pass. 

A  number  of  arrowheads  remained  in  the  wounds  of 
Henry  Harman,  making  his  condition  serious.  On  this 
account  no  pursuit  of  the  Indians  was  attempted.    A  litter 

or  cave  in  that  region  where  they  camped  when  on  Tug,  hunting  and  ex 
ploring.      (These  facts  I  learned  from  Adam  Harman)." 

Adam  Harman,  here  mentioned  by  Mr.  Burris,  was  a  nephew  in  the 
third  generation,  of  Matthias  Harman.  While  there  is  much  error  in  these 
meager  accounts,  they  evidently  preserve  some  of  the  details  of  the  battle 
between  the  hunters  and  the  Indians.  I  heard  many  such  accounts  as  those 
quoted  above.  The  one  written  in  the  text  was  given  me  by  Adam  P. 
Wiley.  There  were  some  things  of  which  he  was  uncertain,  and  my  descrip- 
tion of  the  encounter  is  deficient  in  the  matter  of  detail.  But  I  wrote 
down  all  that  I  was  certain  of. 

It  is  believed  that  this  battle  with  the  Indians  by  Harman  and  his 
sons  and  others  was  in  fact  that  which  is  described  by  Bickley  in  his 
History  of  Tazewell  County,  Virginia.  Adam  P.  Wiley  said  that  Bickley 
had  this  battle  in  mind  when  he  wrote  his  account,  and  that  he  was  in 
error  in  many  things,  particularly  the  date,  locality,  the  number  of  per- 
sons engaged  on  each  side,  and  the  important  developments  which  grew 
out  of  it. 

The  late  Dr.  Witten,  of  Oklahoma  City,  Oklahoma,  knew  Bickley,  and 
was  in  Tazewell  County  when  his  history  was  published.  I  have  seen  a 
letter  from  him  to  his  son,  T.  A.  Witten,  Esq.,  a  lawyer  in  Missouri,  saying 
that  Bickley  fell  into  a  good  many  errors,  and  that  these  were  pointed  out 
by  the  people  there  upon  the  appearance  of  the  book.  The  same  letter  is 
authority  for  the  assurance  that  Bickley  was  conscientious,  and  that  the 
errors  in  his  book  were  the  result  of  insufflcient  research  and  investigation. 
He  places  the  battle  in  1784  and  makes  nothing  of  it  more  than  an  in- 
significant collision  of  stragglers,  while  in  fact  it  was  an  important  meet- 
ing of  those  contesting  for  the  supremacy  of  the  wilderness.  I  give  his 
account : 

"  In  the  fall  of  1784,  Henry  Harman  and  his  two  sons.  George  and  Mat- 
thias, and  George  Draper,  left  the  settlement  to  engage  in  a  bear  hunt  on 
Tug  River.  They  were  provided  with  pack-horses,  independent  of  those 
used  for  riding,  and  on  which  were  to  be  brought  in  the  game.  The  coun- 
try in  which  their  hunt  was  to  take  place  was  penetrated  by  the  *  war-path  ' 
leading  to  and  from  the  Ohio  River;  but  as  it  was  late  in  the  season,  they 
did  not  expect  to  meet  with  Indians. 

"  Arriving  at  the  hunting-grounds  in  the  early  part  of  the  evening, 
they  stopped  and  built  thpir  camp;  a  work  exocuted  generally  by  the  old 
man,  who  might  be  said  to  be  particular  in  having  it  constructed  to  his 
own  taste.  George  and  Matthias  loaded  and  put  their  giins  in  order,  and 
started  to  the  woods  to  look  for  sign,  and  perchance  to  kill  a  buck  for  the 


was  made  and  the  wounded  man  was  sent  to  his  home, 
which  was  in  the  vicinity  of  Ab's  Valley,  so  it  is  said. 

The  surmise  of  the  hunters  concerning  the  intention  of 
the  Cherokee  chief  proved  correct.  He  went  as  directly 
to  Walker's  Creek  as  he  could  from  the  battlefield.  It 
was  the  judgment  of  the  hunters  afterwards  when  all  the 
facts  were  known  that  he  divided  his  band  and  sent  a  part 

evening  repast,  while  Draper  busied  himself  in  hobbling  and  caring  for 
the  horses. 

"  In  a  short  time  George  returned  with  the  startling  intelligence  of 
Indians.  He  had  found  a  camp  but  a  short  distance  from  their  own,  in 
which  the  jiartly  consumed  sticks  were  still  burning.  They  could  not,  of 
course,  be  at  any  considerable  distance  and  might  now  be  concealed  near 
them,  watching  their  every  movement.  George,  while  at  the  camp,  had  made 
a  rafiid  search  for  sign,  and  found  a  pair  of  leggins,  which  he  showed  the 
old  man.  Now,  old  Mr.  Harman  was  a  type  of  frontiersman,  in  some 
things,  and  particularly  that  remarkable  self-possession,  which  is  so  often 
to  be  met  with  in  new  countries,  where  dangers  are  ever  in  the  path  of  the 
settler.  So  taking  a  seat  on  the  ground,  he  began  to  interrogate  his  son 
on  the  dimensions,  appearance,  &c.,  of  the  camp.  Wlien  he  had  fully  sat- 
isfied himself,  he  remarked,  that  '  there  must  be  from  five  to  seven  Indians, ' 
and  that  they  must  pack  up  and  hurry  back  to  the  settlement,  to  prevent, 
if  possible,  the  Indians  from  doing  mischief;  and,  said  he,  '//  tee  fall  in 
mth  thrm   irc  must  fipht  them.' 

"  Matthias  was  immediately  called  in,  and  the  horses  packed.  Mr. 
Harman  and  Draper  now  began  to  load  their  guns,  when  the  old  man  ob- 
serving Drajier  laboring  under  what  is  known  among  hunters  as  the  '  Buck 
ague,'  being  that  state  of  excitement  which  causes  excessive  trembling, 
remarked  to  him,  '  My  son,  I  fear  you  cannot  fight.' 

"  The  plan  of  march  was  now  agreed  upon,  which  was,  that  Mr.  Harman 
and  Draper  should  lead  the  way,  the  pack-horses  follow  them,  and  Matthias 
and  George  bring  up  the  roar.  After  they  had  started.  Draper  remarked 
to  Mr.  Harman.  that  he  would  get  ahead,  as  he  could  see  better  than  Mr. 
Harman,  and  that  he  would  keep  a  sharp  lookout.  It  is  highly  probable 
that  he  was  cogitating  a  plan  of  escape,  as  he  had  not  gone  far  before  he 
declared  he  saw  the  Indians,  which  proved  not  to  be  true.  Proceeding  a 
short  distance  further,  he  suddenly  wheeled  his  horse  about,  at  the  same 
time  crying  out,  '  Yonder  they  are  —  behind  that  log.'  As  a  liar  is  not 
to  be  believed,  even  when  he  speaks  the  truth,  so  Mr.  Draper  was  not  be- 
lieved this  time.  Mr.  Harman  rode  on,  while  a  large  dog  he  had  with  him, 
ran  up  to  the  log  and  roared  himself  upon  it,  showing  no  signs  of  the  pres- 
ence of  Indians.  At  this  second  a  sheet  of  fire  and  smoke  from  the  Indian 
riflj-s,  com|detely  concealed  the  log  from  view,  for  Draper  had  really 
i>I>(>ken  the  truth. 

' '  Hefore  the  smoke  had  cleared  away,  Mr.  Harman  and  his  sons  were 
dinmounted,  while  Draper  had  fled  with  all  the  speed  of  a  swift  horse. 
There  were  seven  of  the  Indians,  only  four  of  whom  had  guns;  the  rest 
beiny  armed  with  bows  and  arrows,  tomahawks  and  scalping-knives.  As 
Koon  ns  they  fired,  they  rushed  on  Mr.  Harman,  who  fell  back  to  where 
hJH  minH  stood  ready  to  meet  the  Indians. 

"  They  iMiiiicdiatcly  surrnundcd  the  three  white  men,  who  had  formed  a 
trian^;))-,  each  looking  out,  or.  what  would  have  been,  with  men  enough,  a 
holii.w  H<|unrf.  Thr  did  gcntlenian  bid  Matthias  to  reserve  his  fire,  while 
bimiM-lf  and  (ieorge  fired,  wounding,  as  it  would  seem,  two  of  the  Indians. 


of  it  on  to  the  Cherokee  towns,  perhaps  with  the  body  of 
his  son.  The  hunters  believed  there  were  more  Indians 
in  the  party  which  attacked  their  camp  than  in  the  band 
which  fell  upon  the  home  of  Thomas  Wiley.  It  was  known 
later  that  the  party  with  which  the  Cherokee  attacked  the 
settlement  was  composed  of  two  Cherokees,  three  Shaw- 
nees,  three  Wyandots,  three  Delawares,  a  total  of  eleven 
Indians  —  a  mongrel  band,  a  thing  not  uncommon  at  that 

Gr€orge  was  a  lame  man,  from  having  had  white  swelling  in  his  childhood, 
and  after  firing  a  few  rounds,  the  Indians  noticed  his  limping,  and  one 
who  had  fired  at  him,  rushed  upon  him,  thinking  him  wounded.  George 
saw  the  fatal  tomahawk  raised,  and  drawing  his  gun,  prepared  to 
meet  it.  WJien  the  Indian  had  got  within  striking  distance,  George  let 
down  upon  his  head  with  the  gun,  which  brought  him  to  the  ground;  he 
soon  recovered  and  made  at  him  again,  half  bent  and  head  foremost,  in- 
tending, no  doubt,  to  trip  him  up.  But  as  he  got  near  enough,  George 
sprang  up  and  jumped  across  him,  which  brought  the  Indian  to  his  knees. 
Feeling  for  his  own  knife,  and  not  getting  hold  of  it,  he  seized  the  Indian's 
and  plunged  it  deep  into  his  side.  Matthias  struck  him  on  the  head  with 
a  tomahawk,  and  finished  the  work  with  him. 

"  Two  Indians  had  attacked  the  old  man  with  bows,  and  were  maneuver- 
ing around  him,  to  get  a  clear  fire  at  his  left  breast.  The  Harmans,  to  a 
man,  wore  their  bullet-pouches  on  the  left  side,  and  with  this  and  his  arm 
he  so  completely  shielded  his  breast  that  the  Indians  did  not  fire  till  they 
saw  the  old  gentleman 's  gun  nearly  loaded  again,  when  one  fired  on  him, 
and  struck  his  elbow  near  the  joint,  cutting  one  of  the  principal  arteries. 
In  a  second  more,  the  fearful  string  was  heard  to  vibrate,  and  an  arrow 
entered  Mr.  Harman's  breast  and  lodged  against  a  rib.  He  had  by  this 
time  loaded  the  gun,  and  was  raising  it  to  his  face  to  shoot  one  of  the 
Indians,  when  the  stream  of  blood  from  the  wounded  artery  flew  into  the 
pan,  and  so  soiled  his  gun  that  it  was  impossible  to  make  it  fire.  Raising 
the  gun,  however,  had  the  effect  to  drive  back  the  Indians,  who  retreated 
to  where  the  others  stood  with  their  guns  empty. 

"  Matthias,  who  had  remained  an  almost  inactive  spectator,  now  asked 
permission  to  fire,  which  the  old  man  granted.  The  Indian  at  whom  he 
fired  appeared  to  be  the  chief,  and  was  standing  under  a  large  beech  tree. 
At  the  report  of  the  rifle,  the  Indian  fell,  throwing  his  tomahawk  high 
among  the  limbs  of  the  tree  under  which  he  stood. 

"  Seeing  two  of  their  number  lying  dead  upon  the  ground,  and  two  more 
badly  wounded,  they  immediately  made  off,  passing  by  Draper,  who  had 
left  his  horse,  and  concealed  himself  behind  a  log. 

' '  As  soon  as  the  Indians  retreated,  the  old  man  fell  back  on  the  ground 
exhausted  and  fainting  from  loss  of  blood.  The  wounded  arm  being  tied 
up  and  his  face  washed  in  cold  water,  soon  restored  him.  The  first  words 
he  uttered  were :  '  We  are  whipped ;  give  me  my  pipe. '  This  was  furnished 
him.  and  he  took  a  whiff,  while  the  boys  scalped  one  of  the  Indians. 

"  When  Draper  saw  the  Indians  pass  him,  he  stealthily  crept  from  his 
hifling-place,  and  pushed  on  for  the  settlement,  where  he  reported  the  whole 
partv  murdered.  The  people  assembled  and  started  soon  the  following 
morning  to  bury  them:  but  they  had  not  gone  far  before  they  met  Mr. 
Harman  and  his  sons,  in  too  ffood  condition  to  need  burying. 

"  T"^pon  the  tree  under  which  the  chief  was  killed,  is  roughly  carved  an 
Indian  bow.  and  a  eun.  in  commemoration  of  the  fight.  The  arrows  which 
were  shot  into  Mr.  Harman  are  in  possession  of  some  of  his  descendants. 


time.  It  was  also  learned  that  the  party  was  on  the  trail 
from  the  villages  beyond  the  Ohio  to  the  Cherokee  towns 
on  the  Little  Tennessee,  and  that  they  had  come  upon  the 
camp  of  the  hunters  by  chance.  It  was  not  a  war  party 
l>ut  a  roving  band  such  as  might  be  encountered  at  any 
time  in  those  days  in  the  wilderness/'' 

Mrs.  Wiley,  upon  her  return,  gave  a  good  description  of 
the  Indians.  She  supposed  the  Cherokee  chief  to  have 
been  more  than  fifty  years  of  age,  possibly  sixty.  He  was 
a  large  man,  stern  and  hard  of  countenance,  resourceful, 
full  of  energy  and  quick  of  mind  and  body  for  an  Indian, 
nnich  more  cruel  than  his  companions,  and  treacherous 
but  bold  and  relentless.  His  ears  and  nose  were  decorated 
with  Indian  ornaments,  among  them  silver  rings  of  elabor- 
ate workmanship,  some  of  them  as  much  as  three  inches 
in  diameter.  He  wore  buckskin  leggins  and  beaded  moc- 
casins, a  shirt  of  red  cloth,  carried  a  knife  and  a  tomahawk 
in  his  belt,  had  the  shot-pouch  and  powder-horn  of  the 
white  man  slung  over  his  left  shoulder  and  under  his  right 
ann,  and  was  armed  with  a  long  rifle  which  he  carried 
nmzzle  forward  on  his  shoulder.  He  was  fierce  and  irasci- 
ble, and  Mrs.  Wiley  stood  in  much  fear  of  him  from  the 
first.  He  had  carried  away  a  white  woman  from  some 
Kanawha  settlement  a  few  years  previous  to  this  raid. 
Many  years  afterwards  it  was  believed  this  was  a  Mrs. 
Tacket,  descendants  of  whom  live  now  in  Johnson  County, 

Among  the  Shawnees  of  the  band  there  was  a  chief, 
lie  was  an  old  man  and  while  a  warrior  he  was  also  a  sort 
of  medicine  man  or  i)riest.  He  was  of  grave  and  solemn 
nii.'ii.  and  like  the  Cherokee,  had  his  nose  and  ears  decor- 
Jited  with  Indian  gewgaws,  but  these  he  seldom  wore  while 

'"Till-  iiuiiihiT  of  liitliiiiiH  holonj^ing  to  the  different  tribes  represented  in 
th..  huii.l  Mr.  Wiley  had  from  his  mother.  This  party  was  not  on  the  war- 
puth.  Tlie  Indians  were  ^o'liK  to  visit  in  the  Cherokee  country.  Their 
MUH'tiuK  with  these  hunters  was  purely  accidental. 


on  the  war-path,  they  being  a  part  of  his  ceremonial 
regalia.  He  had  a  number  of  small  silver  brooches  strung 
together  in  chains  with  which  he  oraamented  himself,  and 
he  carried  rings  and  other  ornaments  for  his  arms,  wrists, 
and  ankles.  He  worshiped  the  New  Moon,  or  performed 
some  manner  of  incantation  at  the  appearance  of  ever}^ 
new  moon.  His  songs  were  long  and  always  recited  with 
solemn  dignity,  often  sung  while  he  marched  about  a  fire 
kindled  for  the  purpose  and  upon  which  he  flung  some 
substance  with  which  tobacco  had  been  previously  mixed. 
Age  had  not  impaired  his  strength,  although  he  was  long 
since  done  with  much  of  the  ardor  which  had  animated  his 
youth.  He  was  of  a  more  kindly  disposition  than  the 
other  Indians.  He  did  not  make  such  show  of  his  orna- 
ments as  did  the  Cherokee  chief  who  carried  a  buckskin 
bag  containing  his  silver  ornaments,  and  another  also 
which  contained  ornaments  of  shell,  bone,  brass,  and  cop- 
per. Mrs.  Wiley  gave  good  descriptions  of  the  other 
Indians,  but  it  is  not  necessary  to  repeat  them  here. 


Mrs.  Wiley  remembered  well  the  state  of  the  weather 
the  day  the  attack  was  made  upon  her  home.  A  heavy 
rain  began  at  noon,  and  soon  clouds  of  fog  hung  about  the 
mountain  tops  and  drifted  up  the  valleys.  The  autumn 
frosts  had  turned  the  forests  a  sombre  hue  which  showing 
under  the  dull  and  leaden  sky  aroused  a  sense  of  melan- 

Thomas  Wiley  was  absent  from  home  that  day.  Before 
daylight  he  had  set  out  for  some  trading  station  with  a 
horse  laden  with  ginseng  and  other  marketable  commodi- 
ties which  he  would  barter  for  domestic  necessaries.  Mrs. 
Wiley's  brother,  a  lad  of  fifteen,  remained  with  her  in  the 
absence  of  her  husband.  The  trading  station  was  a  con- 
siderable distance  from  Wiley's  residence,  and  it  was  not 
ex])ected  that  he  could  reach  home  until  late  at  night. 

There  had  been  bom  to  Thomas  W^iley  and  his  wife  four 
children,  the  age   of  the  youngest  being   about   fifteen 


John  Borders  lived  about  two  miles  from  the  house  of 
Wiley.  Some  of  his  sheep  had  broken  from  an  enclosure 
and  esca])ed  into  the  woods.  Wliile  they  remained  there 
they  were  in  danger  of  destruction  from  wolves  and  other 
wild  animals.  In  the  morning  of  this  day  Borders  had 
gone  out  to  search  for  his  sheep.  He  had  not  found  them 
when  the  rain  set  in.  After  wandering  awhile  in  the  rain 
lie  found  liiuisolf  in  the  vicinity  of  AViley's  cabin  and  went 
down  to  it.  Tie  found  Mrs.  Wiley  engaged  in  weaving  a 
piece  of  (•h)tli  for  use  in  her  family.  He  called  her  atten- 
tion to  tlu'  cries  and  liootings  of  owls  which  could  be 
plainly  heard  from  different  points  in  the  woods  around 


the  house.  He  said  that  he  had  heard  these  cries  since 
the  rain  began  to  fall,  but  had  not  heard  them  before. 
While  it  was  not  unusual  for  the  owls  to  call  from  moun- 
tain to  mountain  on  dark  and  rainy  days  Borders  was 
apprehensive  that  the  hootings  heard  this  day  came  from 
Indians  signaling  to  one  another.  Indians  always  used 
the  cries  of  wild  animals  as  such  signals.  Borders  urged 
Mrs.  Wiley  to  take  her  children  to  his  house  and  remain 
there  over  night  as  a  matter  of  precaution.  Mr.  Wiley 
would  pass  his  house  on  his  return  and  could  be  hailed  and 
remain  there  also.  Mrs.  Wiley  agreed  to  go  as  Borders 
requested,  but  wished  first  to  complete  the  piece  of  cloth, 
which  would  require  but  a  few  minutes.  As  her  brother 
could  assist  her  in  bringing  the  children  Borders  returned 
home  at  once  through  the  woods  and  made  further  search 
for  his  sheep. 

To  follow  along  the  course  of  the  creek  it  was  a  mile 
from  the  cabin  of  Thomas  Wiley  to  that  of  Matthias 
HaiTnan,  but  by  the  path  which  led  over  a  low  hill  the 
distance  was  less  than  half  a  mile.  When  standing  in  this 
mountain  path  on  the  top  of  the  range  if  you  went  down 
to  the  south  you  came  to  Harman's  house;  by  descending 
to  the  north  Wiley's  cabin  was  reached. 

As  soon  as  Borders  departed  Mrs.  Wiley  made  all  haste 
to  feed  and  care  for  the  domestic  animals  on  the  farm 
and  arrange  for  her  absence  from  home  over  night.  The 
Indians  were  always  expected  in  those  days,  but  Mrs. 
Wiley  felt  no  fear.  It  was  her  judgment  that  no  attack 
would  be  made  upon  any  settler  until  after  night  came  on. 
Usually  that  course  would  have  been  taken  by  the  Indians, 
but  in  this  instance  they  were  anxious  to  proceed  as 
rapidly  as  possible. 

It  was  about  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  when  Mrs. 
Wiley  and  the  children  were  wrapped  and  ready  to  st-art 
to  the  home  of  Borders.  Suddenly  the  house  was  filled 
with  Indians.     They  came  in  at  the  open  door  yelling 


the  war-whoop  and  began  to  strike  down  the  children  with 
their  tomahawks.  Little  resistance  could  be  offered  by 
Mrs.  Wiley.  She  realized  the  awful  condition  she  was  in, 
but  she  tried  to  save  her  children.  She  could  not  reach 
any  weapon  and  could  only  struggle  to  protect  the  little 
ones.  Her  brother  aided  her  as  much  as  he  could  until 
he  was  brained  with  a  tomahawk.  Only  the  youngest  child 
remained  alive  of  her  children  and  her  brother.  She 
caught  up  this  child  and  fought  off  the  Indians  a  few 
moments,  after  which  the  Shawnee  chief  found  an  oppor- 
tunity to  seize  her  and  claim  her  as  his  captive.  This 
angered  the  Cherokee  chief,  and  a  controversy  arose.  Mrs. 
AViley  learned  in  some  way  from  the  actions  of  the  two 
chiefs  and  what  they  said  that  they  supposed  themselves 
at  the  house  of  Matthias  Harnian.  She  made  haste  to 
infoiTn  them  that  they  were  not  at  the  Harman  residence 
and  told  them  her  name.  It  appears  that  there  had  been 
some  doubt  as  to  which  was  Harman 's  house  in  the  minds 
of  the  savages.  For  the  time  being  Mrs.  Wiley's  life  was 
spared,  also  that  of  the  child  she  had  in  her  arms.  Her 
slain  children  and  her  brother  were  scalped  before  her 

The  Indians  found  that  their  plans  had  miscarried, 
'i'lic  family  of  their  arch  enemy  had  escaped,  though  they 
lia<l  ])erpetrated  a  bloody  deed  in  the  settlement.  The 
('herokee  insisted  that  Mrs.  Wiley  and  her  child  should 
Ik*  killed  at  once  and  a  descent  made  upon  Harman's  house. 
The  Shawnee  chief  believed  that  the  hunters  would  return 
lliat  (lay  and  that  they  would  meet  with  resistance  at  the 
I  larman  ca])in.  It  was  his  opinion  that  they  should  make 
their  escajjc  from  the  settlements  and  continue  their  jour- 
ney, for  ]iursuit  was  certain.  The  Cherokee  was  equally 
(•(•rtain  that  thoy  would  be  followed  by  the  settlers  and 
was  liiially  ))r()ught  to  the  opinion  of  the  Shawnee,  but  he 
pointed  out  that  they  could  not  escape  if  they  carried  any 
prisoners.     The  Shawnee  chief  contended  for  his  right  to 



o  3 



take  a  captive  and  carry  her  to  his  town.  It  was  finally 
decided  that  the  Shawnee  might  retain  his  captive  for  tlie 
time  being,  though  it  necessitated,  as  they  believed,  a  re- 
turn to  the  Indian  towns  beyond  the  Ohio.  Their  decision 
to  follow  this  course  saved  Mrs.  Wiley's  life.  She  did  not 
know  what  the  Indians  were  saying,  and  only  came  to  know 
what  had  passed  long  afterwards  when  she  understood 
the  Shawnee  language.  Both  chiefs  could  speak  English 
a  little,  but  this  discussion  had  been  carried  on  in  the 
Indian  tongue.  The  Shawnee  chief  infonned  her  that  he 
had  saved  her  life  that  she  might  take  the  place  of  his 
daughter  who  had  recently  died,  the  last  of  his  children." 

The  Indians  set  the  house  on  fire,  but  such  torrents  of 
rain  were  falling  that  it  did  not  completely  burn.  They 
entered  the  woods  at  a  point  near  the  house.  Darkness 
was  coming  rapidly  on.  Mists  and  the  black  clouds  of 
night  swallowed  up  the  valley  and  shut  out  the  view.  Mrs. 
Wiley's  dog  came  hesitatingly  after  them  and  was  per- 
mitted to  follow  her.     They  ascended  a  hill  north  of  the 

11  In  all  his  recitals  to  me  Mr.  Wiley  never  omitted  to  include  the 
fact  that  his  mother  -nas  to  be  the  daughter  of  the  Shawnee  chief.  The 
formal  adoption,  he  insisted,  could  not  be  made  until  the  Indians  reached 
the  towns  of  the  Shawnees,  consequently  she  could  not  be  given  in  marriage 
to  any  one  before  they  reached  there.  Being,  to  all  intents  and  purposes, 
the  daughter  of  the  chief,  Mr.  Wiley  maintained  that  his  mother  was  safe 
from  violation  and  escaped  that  humiliation.  I  have  heard  statements  to 
the  effect  that  an  Indian  daughter  was  bom  to  Mrs.  Wiley  after  her  es- 
cape and  return  to  the  Virginia  settlements.  Mr.  Burris  writes  me  that 
he  has  heard  the  same  thing.  I  have  been  told  that  Adam  P.  Wiley  was 
the  son  of  the  Shawnee.  That  was  certainly  untrue,  for  Mr.  Wiloy  was 
born  in  1798.  Some  versions  of  the  captivity  of  Mrs.  Wiley  had  it  that 
she  was  carried  to  Old  Chillicothe  and  that  her  sale  to  the  Cherokee  oc- 
curred there,  after  which  she  was  carried  to  the  old  Indian  town  at  the 
mouth  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek  by  the  Cherokee  as  his  wife. 

There  was  never  any  uniformity  in  these  versions,  and  they  always  ap- 
peared to  me  as  mere  conjecture  of  those  having  indefinite  information. 
It  was  natural,  of  course,  for  Mr.  Wiley  to  believe  that  his  mother  escaped 
violation.  It  is  the  province  of  the  historian  to  state  all  the  facts  in  his 
possession,  and  I  have  performed  that  duty  to  accuracy  in  historical  ac- 
counts in  this  instance. 


house,  marching  in  Indian  file  headed  by  the  Cherokee 
chief,  the  Shawnee  chief  being  hindmost  with  Mrs.  Wiley, 
her  child  in  her  arms,  just  in  front  of  him. 


After  leaving  Wiley's  house  the  Indians  took  a  general 
course  leading  to  the  head  of  Walker's  Creek.  They  fol- 
lowed mountain  ways  and  short  cuts  from  one  valley  to 
another,  coming  to  Brushy  Mountain,  which  they  crossed 
to  the  head  waters  of  Wolf  Creek.  When  the  night  was 
far  advanced  they  halted  in  a  large  rockhouse^^  in  the 
range  between  Wolf  Creek  and  the  Bluestone  River. 
There  they  made  a  fire  under  the  overhanging  rock  and 
broiled  some  venison  which  a  Cherokee  took  from  a  pack 
he  carried  by  thongs  on  his  back.  They  made  a  hasty  meal 
of  this  venison,  which  appeared  to  refresh  them  all,  and 
when  the  rain  ceased  they  again  set  forward  after  extin- 
guishing the  fire  and  concealing  as  far  as  possible  all  traces 
of  its  existence.  It  was  still  quite  dark.  The  dull  dawn 
found  them  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Bluestone,  branches 
of  which  river  they  waded  as  they  came  to  them,  though 
all  were  running  high  from  the  recent  rains.  They  crossed 
the  Great  Flat  Top  Mountain  and  ascended  the  south  end 
of  one  of  those  ridges  lying  in  the  watershed  between 
Guyandotte  and  Tug  rivers.  This  rough  range  extends 
almost  to  the  Ohio.     The  great  Indian  trail  up  the  Tug 

12  The  term  "  rockhouse  "  is  heard  only  in  the  South,  and  principally 
in  the  region  of  the  AUeghanies  south  of  Pennsylvania.  It  is  not  used  in 
connection  with  a  cave.  It  does  not  apply  to  a  cave ;  a  cave  is  entirely  dis- 
tinct from  a  rockhouse.  A  rockhouse  is  the  open  space  beneath  an  over- 
hanging rock  or  cliff.  Rockhouses  are  sometimes  of  large  extent  T  have 
know-n  them  to  be  used  as  stables  for  horses  and  cattle.  They  are  the 
favorite  resorts  of  sheep  in  summer.  They  are  cool  and  pleasant  in  the 
warmest  weather,  but  having  a  large  opening  along  the  entire  front  they  are 
poor  protection  from  cold  in  winter.  They  are  found  only  where  the  pre- 
vailing rocks  are  sandstone. 


River  often  followed  along  its  tortuous  and  uneven  crest 
and  from  that  cause  it  was  long  known  as  Indian  Ridge, 
especially  in  its  southern  reaches. 

The  Indians  made  no  halt  during  this  day's  travel  until 
late  in  the  afternoon,  when,  believing  themselves  beyond 
any  immediate  danger  of  being  overtaken  by  the  whites, 
they  made  a  camp  in  a  rockhouse  in  the  head  of  a  creek 
below  the  crest  of  the  mountain.  They  had  not  killed  any 
game  during  the  day,  although  both  bear  and  deer  were 
in  sight  more  than  once.  Their  meal  consisted  of  venison 
from  the  pack  of  the  Cherokee.  This  venison  was  dried 
until  hard,  but  the  Indians  held  it  in  the  flames  of  their 
camp  fire  until  it  was  cooked  a  little,  then  they  ate  it.  Mrs. 
Wile}'  ate  some  of  it,  also  some  parched  com  from  the  wal- 
let of  one  of  the  Indians.  She  was  exhausted  with  the  long 
and  rough  march  of  twenty-four  hours  she  had  been  forced 
to  make.  She  had  climbed  mountains  and  waded  streams ; 
she  had  forced  her  way  through  thickets  of  laurel  and  ivy, 
and  had  tramped  through  quagmires  and  over  stones ;  she 
had  been  compelled  to  ascend  almost  perpendicular  cliffs 
and  to  descend  sheer  precipices.  Much  of  the  time  she 
had  been  drenched  to  the  skin.  Her  child  was  in  great 
distress  and  had  cried  until  it  could  cry  no  more  because 
of  hoarseness.  At  this  camp  she  saw  the  warriors  make 
hoops  of  green  boughs  and  over  them  stretch  the  scalps 
of  her  brother  and  her  children.  In  after  life  she  often 
declared  that  at  no  other  time  did  despair  so  take  hold 
of  her  as  it  did  this  second  night  of  her  captivity. 

When  the  Indians  lay  down  to  sleep  they  bound  Mrs. 
Wiley  with  strips  of  raw  deer  skin.  She  was  in  a  state  of 
ner\'ous  delirium  and  could  not  sleep,  neither  could  she 
rest.  Every  time  she  closed  her  eyes  she  seemed  to  be- 
liold  the  slaughter  of  her  children  anew,  and  more  than 
onct'  she  shrieked  aloud.  Her  cries  aroused  the  old 
Shawnee,  wlio  finally  unbound  her.  He  lighted  a  torch 
.•ind  c.-irricd  it  into  the  woods,  retuming  soon  with  some 




leaves  from  which  he  made  an  infusion  in  a  small  vessel 
he  carried.  He  gave  her  some  of  this  preparation  to 
drink,  after  which  she  fell  into  a  troubled  sleep  that  con- 
tinued through  the  night. 

The  Shawnee  chief  aroused  Mrs.  Wiley  before  the  dawn. 
The  Indians  were  preparing  to  depart.  She  was  given 
some  corn  and  venison  for  the  morning  meal,  and  the  whole 
party  again  set  forward.  The  mountain  streams  were 
running  bank  full  from  the  recent  heavy  rain,  and  the 
Indians  avoided  them  as  much  as  possible  by  keeping  to 
the  paths  which  followed  the  ridges.  It  was  with  much 
diificulty  that  Mrs.  Wiley  could  proceed.  She  was  urged 
by  the  Indians  to  quicken  her  pace,  but  her  progress  was 
slow  and  painful.  The  only  thing  which  enabled  her  to 
drag  herself  along  was  the  fear  that  if  she  failed  to  keep 
up  with  the  Indians  they  would  kill  her  child.  More  than 
once  was  this  proposed  by  the  Cherokee  chief,  and  it  was 
acquiesced  in  by  all  the  band  save  the  old  Shawnee.  As 
the  day  advanced  the  reserve  forces  of  her  strong  consti- 
tution came  to  her  aid  and  she  made  better  time,  but  her 
marching  was  not  satisfactory  to  the  Indians. 

AAHien  the  Indians  were  starting  out  this  morning  they 
sent  two  of  their  number  back  over  the  trail  to  keep  watch 
for  the  whites,  for  they  were  confident  that  the  hunters 
would  follow  them.  Some  of  the  younger  members  of  the 
band  believed  the  hea%^  rains  had  washed  out  their  trail, 
but  the  Cherokee  said  such  was  not  the  case,  especially  if 
they  should  be  followed  by  Matthias  Harman.  This  wjis 
one  of  his  strong  arguments  in  favor  of  killing  Mrs. 
Wiley's  child.  It  was  with  difficulty  that  the  old  Shawnee 
withstood  the  demands  of  the  Cherokee  chief. 

At  the  end  of  this  day 's  march  an  encampment  was  made 
in  a  location  much  like  that  of  the  preceding  night.  The 
Indians  halted  before  the  sun  was  down  because  one  of 
their  number  had  killed  a  fat  bear  at  the  time,  and  tliey 
feasted  most  of  the  night.     Though  the  march  bad  been 


severe  the  distance  passed  had  been  much  less  than  was 
covered  during  the  same  time  of  the  day  before,  and  Mrs. 
Wiley's  condition  had  improved  somewhat,  but  her  feet 
were  terribly  bruised  and  blistered.  She  had  little  hope 
that  her  child  would  live  through  the  night.  There  being 
nothing  better  at  hand  she  rubbed  it  well  with  bear's 
grease,  and  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Shawnee  chief  she 
forced  it  to  swallow  some  of  the  melted  fat.  This  seemed 
in  a  measure  effective,  for  the  morning  showed  improve- 
ment in  the  child's  health.  The  Shawnee  chief  made  a 
decoction  of  some  leaves  boiled  with  the  inner  layers  of 
the  bark  of  the  white  oak,  which  he  caused  Mrs.  Wiley  to 
a|)i)ly  to  her  feet,  and  which  gave  her  immediate  relief. 
An  additional  application  in  the  morning  caused  still 
further  improvement,  and  this,  together  with  the  improved 
condition  of  her  child,  caused  Mrs.  Wiley  to  begin  the  day 
with  more  hope  than  she  began  the  previous  one.  The 
party  left  the  camp  before  it  was  light  and  continued  the 
journey  in  the  direction  of  the  Ohio.  A  heavy  rain  had 
fallen  in  the  night,  and  it  rained  most  of  the  day.  A  terri- 
fic storm  of  wind  and  rain  drove  the  party  under  a  cliff 
shortly  before  darkness  came  on,  and  they  built  a  fire  and 
cam]ied  there.  That  camp  was  in  the  hills  just  west  of 
tlie  liead  of  Twelve  Pole  Creek.  The  Indian  scouts  who 
had  been  sent  back  each  day  reported  late  at  night,  and 
liore  tliey  said  they  had  seen  no  pursuers  on  their  trail. 

Tlie  Indians  left  their  camp,  as  was  their  custom,  on  the 
following  morning  before  it  was  light.  Insufficient  food 
and  the  continuous  marching  was  rapidly  exhausting  Mrs. 
Wiley,  and  she  found  herself  unable  to  move  forward  so 
rapidly  as  on  the  previous  day.  She  was  failing  under 
liar(lsiii])s  and  the  burden  of  her  child.  The  Shawnee 
cliief  warned  her  of  the  consequences  of  failing  to  keep  up 
with  the  warriors.  But  try  as  she  might  she  could  not 
satisfy  licr  captors. 

Tile   Indians  who  had  been  sent  back  as  scouts  this 


morning  returned  late  in  the  day  and  reported  that  they 
had  seen  a  large  party  of  white  men  on  horseback  follow- 
ing their  trail.  This  was  not  unexpected  intelligence,  but 
the  Indians  discussed  earnestly  what  it  was  best  to  do  in 
the  matter.  Some  proposed  an  ambush  of  the  white  men, 
but  this  was  not  taken  as  the  best  course  to  follow.  The 
Cherokee  chief  proposed  the  immediate  death  of  the  child 
and  a  change  of  course.  Mrs.  Wiley  promised  to  keep  up 
with  the  march,  and  with  the  aid  of  the  Shawnee  chief 
saved  the  life  of  the  child  for  a  time.  The  Indians  turned 
west  and  descended  the  hills  toward  Tug  River.  They 
sought  a  small  stream  and  waded  down  it  until  it  became 
too  deep  for  that  purpose,  when  they  changed  to  another. 
Mrs.  Wiley  kept  well  up  for  a  few  miles,  then  began  to 
fail.  Despite  her  utmost  exertions  she  could  not  march 
at  the  rate  the  Indians  were  then  going.  She  fell  behind 
the  Indians  marching  in  front  of  her,  and  began  to  feel 
that  her  child  was  in  great  danger.  She  suspected  that 
her  friends  were  near,  although  the  Indians  had  told  her 
nothing.  At  length  the  Cherokee  chief  stopped.  He  was 
leading  the  march,  and  he  and  most  of  the  party  were  far 
in  advance.  Mrs.  Wiley  knew  what  he  would  do  when 
he  came  back  to  her  place  in  the  line.  His  arrival  there 
meant  death  for  her  child  and  possibly  death  for  herself. 
The  Shawnee  chief  was  following  her  in  the  water.  Mrs. 
Wiley  ran  out  of  the  stream  and  with  her  last  strength 
ran  back  up  its  course  with  her  child."     She  had  no  partic- 

13  This  stream  flows  into  Tug  Elver.  It  is  the  first  stream  of  any 
considerable  size  on  the  West  Virginia  side  below  Marrowbone  Creek. 
The  Indians  waded  down  the  last  named  creek  until  it  got  too  deep  to 
allow  rapid  traveling;  then  they  crossed  the  mountain  to  the  creek  upon 
which  Mrs.  Wiley's  child  was  killed.  Ever  since  the  country  has  been 
settled  this  creek  has  been  called  Jennie's  Creek,  in  honor  of  Mrs.  Wiley. 
After  she  moved  to  Kentucky  Mrs.  Wiley  went  to  this  creek  and  identified 
the  place  where  her  child  was  killed;  she  identified  the  big  beech  tree 
against  which  the  Cherokee  chief  dashed  out  its  brains.  This  tree  was 
preserved,  and  it  was  standing  twenty  years  ago,  since  which  time  I  have 
not  heard  anything  concerning  it. 


ular  object  in  doing  this  except  to  carry  her  child  out  of 
danger,  and  that  was  a  vain  effort.  The  old  Shawnee  was 
surprised,  but  he  ran  after  her  and  caught  her  just  as  the 
Clierokee  chief  came  up.  She  was  surrounded  by  the 
Indians.  The  Cherokee  chief  seized  her  child  by  the  feet 
and  dashed  out  its  brains  against  a  big  beech  tree.  He 
scalped  it,  and  she  was  pushed  back  into  the  stream  and 
forced  to  continue  her  flight. 

It  was  almost  dark  when  the  party  reached  the  Tug 
Eiver,  which  they  found  much  swollen  from  the  recent 
rains.  x\s  the  Indians  arrived  on  its  banks  a  violent 
thunder  storm  broke  over  the  valley.  The  Indians  realized 
that  in  crossing  the  river  at  once  lay  their  only  hope  of 
escape  from  the  party  in  pursuit.  Their  only  means  of 
crossing  the  stream  was  by  swimming.  With  the  river  at 
the  stage  at  which  they  found  it  that  was  a  dangerous 
undertaking.  At  all  times  a  swift  mountain  stream,  it  was 
now  a  raging  torrent  covered  with  drift  and  all  manner  of 
river-rubbish.  Mrs.  Wiley  was  amazed  and  terrified  when 
told  she  must  cross  the  mad  stream  by  swimming  in  com- 
pany with  the  Indians.  In  the  gathering  gloom  its  con- 
tortions were  visible  only  by  the  fierce  flashes  of  lightning 
that  burned  in  the  heavens.  It  seemed  impossible  for 
any  one  to  survive  a  conflict  with  this  raging  river.  But 
she  was  seized  by  two  Shawnees  and  dragged  screaming 
into  the  surging  flood.  One  swam  on  either  side  of  her. 
They  gras])ed  her  fiiTnly  by  her  arms  and  swam  easily  and 
swiftly.  They  went  with  the  current  of  the  stream  and 
avoided  the  drift  with  the  dexterity  of  otters.  Their 
])()sition  was  almost  upright  with  much  of  the  body  above 
the  water ;  and  they  ])ushed  but  slightly  against  the  current 
but  were  all  the  time  working  themselves  toward  the  op- 
posite shore.  After  being  carried  down  the  river  what 
seenieil  to  Mrs.  Wiley  several  miles  they  were  all  cast  to 
tile  west  bank  and  found  themselves  in  "dead"  water 
in  the  mouth  of  a  small  creek.     There  it  was  much  more 


difficult  to  swim  and  support  the  captive  above  the  water, 
but  they  succeeded  in  effecting  a  landing.  The  whole 
party  was  exhausted  and  some  time  was  spent  in  resting, 
after  which  the  journey  was  continued.  The  Indians 
waded  up  the  stream  into  the  mouth  of  which  they  had 
been  cast  by  the  river.  It  led  up  into  a  very  rough  moun- 
tain covered  with  bristling  thickets  of  laurel  and  ivy.  The 
storm  cleared  and  the  air  became  chill  as  they  descended 
the  mountain  range  they  were  crossing.  A  large  rock- 
house  was  sought  at  the  base  of  the  range  and  a  small  fire 
made  in  it  and  the  blaze  screened.  The  Indians  left  tliis 
camp  at  dawn,  and  in  the  afternoon  reached  tlie  Louisa 
River.  There  they  cooked  and  ate  a  small  deer  which 
had  been  killed  on  the  march  and  which  made  an  insuffi- 
cient meal  for  the  party.  The  Louisa  River  was  found 
full  to  the  brim.  After  resting  until  almost  dark  the  In- 
dians crossed  it  as  they  had  crossed  the  Tug.  They  went 
into  camp  under  a  cliff  behind  a  mountain  and  built  a 
roaring  fire  about  which  all  slept  through  the  night.  In 
the  early  light  of  the  following  morning  they  sent  out  two 
of  their  number  to  hunt.  In  a  short  time  the  hunters  re- 
turned with  part  of  a  buffalo  they  had  killed  in  a  cane- 
brake.  The  day  was  spent  in  eating  and  sleeping.  The 
Indians  believed  they  had  made  a  complete  escape  from 
their  pursuers  and  did  not  again  give  that  subject  any 
serious  consideration.  As  the  sun  was  nearing  the  tops 
of  the  hills  in  the  western  range  the  party  set  forward 
again.  They  followed  a  trail  which  led  through  valleys 
and  over  rough  hills,  but  they  marched  in  a  leisurely  way. 
It  was  well  for  Mrs.  Wiley  that  they  made  no  fon^ed  marcli- 
«s  for  she  was  by  this  time  worn  out.  The  loitering  march- 
es brought  the  Indians  to  the  Ohio  River  on  the  ninth  day 
of  Mrs.  Wiley's  captivity. 


The  Indians  did  not  descend  directly  to  the  Ohio,  but 
came  down  the  hills  west  of  the  Big  Sandy  and  followed, 
that  stream  about  a  mile  to  its  mouth.  They  found  an 
immense  flood  in  the  Ohio,  something  they  said  was  unus- 
ual for  that  season  of  the  year.  This  flood  increased  the 
difficulty  of  their  retreat.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  how- 
ever, the  Indians  appeared  much  pleased  to  reach  the  Ohio. 
The  younger  members  of  the  band  exclaimed  "O-hi-yoT 
O-hi-yo !  O-hi-yo ! ' '  seemingly  in  great  delight. 

How  to  cross  the  Ohio  was  now  the  question  for  the 
Indians.  They  discussed  the  matter  for  some  time  with- 
out arriving  at  a  satisfactory  conclusion  and  finally  re- 
turned to  the  hills  to  avoid  the  backwater,  pushed  far  up 
the  small  streams,  and  kept  down  the  Ohio.  Much  of  the 
time  tliey  were  not  in  sight  of  the  Ohio.  They  reached  the 
mouth  of  the  Little  Sandy  River  without  finding  any  means 
to  cross  the  Ohio  and  again  held  council  to  determine  upon 
a  course.  They  were  assisted  in  a  decision  apparently 
by  the  return  of  two  Indians  whom  they  had  sent  back 
from  the  crossing  of  the  Louisa  River  to  spy  upon  the 
movements  of  the  pursuing  party.  Their  report  was  de- 
livered (lilt  of  the  hearing  of  Mrs.  Wiley  who  was  begin- 
ning to  understand  a  few  words  of  the  different  Indian 
tongues.  After  several  hours  spent  in  talk  the  party 
divided.  Tlie  Cherokee  chief,  the  Cherokee  warrior,  two 
\\'>an<lots,  and  two  Delawares  swam  across  the  Little 
Sandy  River  and  disappeared  in  the  woods. 

The   remaining  Indians,  witli   Mrs.  Wiley,  took  their 
way  up  tlic  Little  Sandy.     They  appeared  to  be  in  no 

:\ris.  Wil.y  rescuing  her  child  from  the   liidinu  Oi-ileal  in  the  Cherokee 

Fork  of  Big  Hhiine  Creek 


hurry.  They  left  the  main  stream  at  the  month  of  the 
J)ry  Pork,  which  they  followed  to  the  head  of  one  of  its 
branches.  They  crossed  the  divide  through  the  Cherokee 
Gap  to  the  Cherokee  Fork  of  Big  Blaine  Creek.  As  they 
were  descending  this  creek  Mrs.  Wiley  became  seriously 
ill,  but  she  concealed  her  condition  from  the  Indians  as 
long  as  possible,  fearing  she  might  be  killed  should  they 
discover  the  tiiith.  It  soon  became  impossible  for  her  to 
proceed,  however,  and  the  Indians  went  into  camp  near 
the  mouth  of  the  creek.  They  placed  Mrs,  Wiley  in  a  small 
roekhouse  near  the  camp  and  left  her  alone.  There  a  son 
was  born  to  her.  The  birth  was  |)remature  and  she  was 
near  death  for  some  time,  but  she  finally  recovered  and 
the  child  lived.  She  attributed  her  recovery  to  a  season 
of  fine  weather  which  came  on.  The  Indians  brought  her 
meat  from  the  game  they  killed  and  from  the  first  of  her 
illness  kept  her  a  fire;  but  as  soon  as  slie  could  walk  they 
left  her  to  gather  her  own  fire-wood.  Knowing  that  it 
was  impossible  for  her  to  escape  the  Indians  paid  little 
attention  to  her. 

The  Indian  party  spent  the  winter  in  camj)  at  the  mouth 
of  Cherokee  Creek  and  allowed  Mrs.  Wiley  to  live  alone 
in  the  roekhouse  with  her  child.  She  lost  all  account  of 
time.  She  did  not  know  the  day  of  the  week  from  the 
time  they  went  into  camp  there  until  she  made  her  escape. 
The  Shawnee  chief  gave  her  child  a  name.  The  sojourn 
at  this  place  was  uneventful  but  for  one  instance.  One 
day  when  the  weather  was  becoming  wanner  the  Shawnee 
chief  came  to  the  roekhouse  and  said  the  child  was  "three 
moons, ' '  meaning  that  its  age  was  then  about  three  months. 
He  informed  her  that  he  was  mjiking  preparations  to  give 
it  the  first  test  a  boy  was  expected  to  undergo,  lie  nuide 
no  explanation  and  soon  left  the  roekhouse.  He  returned 
in  a  short  time  and  commanded  her  to  take  the  child  and 
follow  him.  He  led  her  to  the  creek  where  the  other  In- 
dians were  assembled.     The  chief  tied  tlu?  child  to  a  large 


slab  of  diy  bark  and  set  it  adrift  in  the  swift  water  of  a 
small  slioal.  The  child  began  to  cry  as  soon  as  it  felt  the 
cold  water,  and  this  action  seemed  to  condemn  it  in  the 
minds  of  the  warriors.  They  brandished  their  toma- 
hawks, and  Mrs.  Wiley  rushed  into  the  water  and  rescued 
the  infant,  immediately  returaing  to  the  rockhouse  with  it. 
The  Indians  followed  her,  and  when  they  arrived  at  the 
rockhouse  the  Wyandot  killed  the  child  with  his  tomahawk 
and  immediately  proceeded  to  scalp  it.  She  was  not  mo- 
lested, but  she  saw  that  the  Indians  were  very  angry.  She 
was  pei-mitted  to  bury  the  child  in  a  corner  of  the  rock- 

Soon  after  the  murder  of  her  child  and  while  the  streams 
were  full  from  melting  snow  the  Indians  left  their  camp  at 
the  mouth  of  Cherokee  Creek.  Mrs.  Wiley  was  not  strong 
but  was  forced  to  keep  up  with  the  party.  They  followed 
a  trail  which  led  up  Hood's  Fork  of  Big  Blaine  Creek. 
Crossing  through  a  gap  at  the  head  of  one  of  its  branches 
they  came  to  the  Laurel  Fork,  which  they  followed  to  that 
fine  rolling  country  now  known  as  Flat  Gap,  in  Johnson 
County.  From  that  point  they  followed  a  small  stream  to 
the  main  branch  of  Big  Mudlick  Creek,  which  they  de- 
scended to  the  great  buffalo  lick  from  which  the  stream 
derived  its  name.  They  camped  at  the  lick  in  hope  of  kill- 
ing some  game,  but  none  came  during  their  stay.  They 
broke  camp  one  morning  at  dawn  and  went  down  the 
creek,  arriving  during  the  day  at  an  old  Indian  town  at  the 
mouth  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek.  The  actions  of  the  In- 
<liaii.s  there  made  Mrs.  Wiley  suppose  that  the  end  of  their 
journey  had  been  reached  and  that  they  would  remain  for 
some  time.  As  that  is  a  somewhat  remarkable  location 
and  the  Indians  kept  Mrs.  Wiley  there  until  the  follow- 
ing October  a  description  of  some  of  its  most  prominent 
features  will  not  be  out  of  place  here. 

I  -ittle  Mudlick  Creek  is  about  three  miles  in  length.  In 
<li\    MimiiKMs  there  are  times  when  little  water  can  be 


lo  r  t  U 


TVf  AT 

i  K  t  C  o  IX  11  t  I-  V     ft  b  (  11 1  t  lit      ^^ 
inoutli    t^    LittK    /Vfui- 


2.  .S'eoMi  FdiljL/WixiL  It  k 
^    T/.i.<i    /"diuj    Cri^eK  . 
4;     ficcHhou.ce.    o<   Cdve    wha.«. 
Jennie  Wwev    i^ar    /lept 
tv^»    b,   tlie  li,  iV...j     in    /TtfjIiiii-Ke-i  X 
•^//•ih    Xock,    c.v^^.i    I.,Jx.. 


found  in  its  bed.  Its  general  course  is  from  north  to 
south,  but  it  falls  into  Big  Mudlick  Creek  from  the  east. 
It  joins  the  larger  stream  about  half  a  mile  from  where 
Big  Mudlick  and  Big  Paint  Creek  unite.  A  short  distance 
above  the  junction  of  the  Mudlick  creeks  each  stream  flows 
through  narrows  or  gorges  f onned  by  their  having  broken 
through  a  range  of  low  hills  and  cut  deep  channels  in 
ledges  of  sandstone.  In  the  space  enclosed  between  the 
two  streams  there  is  a  perfectly  level  tract,  a  miniature 
table-land  or  plateau,  which  runs  from  near  their  junction 
back  several  hundred  feet  to  a  succession  of  low  hills.  The 
beds  of  the  streams  are  as  much  as  two  hundred  feet  below 
this  plateau,  the  edges  of  which  are  perpendicular  and 
overhang  the  creeks.  These  overhanging  cliffs  contain 
caves  and  fissures  or  rockhouses  and  projecting  ledges  of 
sandstone  to  which  it  is  difficult  to  gain  access.  At  some 
points  the  rock  is  steep  and  bare  from  the  surface  of  the 
water  to  its  utmost  height.  In  other  places  great  masses 
of  sandstone  are  broken  from  the  main  ledges  and  lie 
piled  about  the  base  of  the  cliffs  in  great  confusion.  The 
broader  ledges,  huge  crevices,  and  long  interstices  in  these 
cliffs  are  thickly  grown  with  laurel  and  ivy,  shrubs  indi- 
genous to  the  sandstone  hills  and  cliffs  of  the  South.  At 
the  base  and  far  up  the  sides  of  the  cliffs  at  points  where 
sufficient  footing  exists  grow  huge  hemlocks,  gnarled  chest- 
nuts, and  misshapen  black  pines,  many  of  these  overhang- 
ing the  creeks.  Interspersed  with  these  are  holly-trees 
covered  in  winter  with  scarlet  berries.  Along  the  creeks 
are  willows  and  sycamore  trees  and  sometimes  slender 
birches.  The  creek  bottoms  were  formerly  covered  with 
beech  trees  which  long  since  fell  before  the  axe  of  the 
backwoodsman.  The  steep  ravines  are  choked  with  thick- 
ets. The  plateau  itself  is  covered  with  a  thin  and  strag- 
gling growth  of  stunted  trees  and  indigenous  shrubs. 

On  the  face  of  the  cliff  overhanging  the  waters  of  the 
larger  creek  were  formerly  found  many  Indian  liiero,i>:lyi>h- 


ics  and  strange  pictiiies.  These  pictures  were  usually 
skeleton  drawings  of  animals  native  to  the  country,  such 
as  the  l)uffalo,  hear,  deer,  panther,  wolf,  turkey,  and  a  few 
of  turtles  and  rattlesnakes.  These  figures  were  put  on 
tlie  cliifs  with  hlack  or  red  paint:  no  other  colors  were 
used.  Tliere  was  no  mixing  of  colors;  there  were  red 
grou])s  and  hlack  grou])s,  hut  nowhere  were  the  two  colors 
found  in  the  same  group.  In  no  instance  were  the  figures 
cut  or  scratched  into  the  rock.  Time,  thoughtless  and 
mischievous  vandalism,  and  the  weather  have  destroyed 
them  all.  In  1850,  it  is  said,  some  of  the  gi-oups  were 
faintly  visihle,  and  as  late  as  1880  one  group  of  deer  in 
hlack,  on  the  cliff  over  the  larger  creek,  was  yet  very 

n  When  .loliDBon  County,  Ki'iitucky.  was  first  settled  there  were 
found  alonj^'  the  Indian  trail  from  the  mouth  of  ?^Iudlick  Creek  to  the 
mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek  occasional  trees  which  had  been  stripped  of  their 
bark  from  the  ground  to  a  considerable  height,  sometimes  as  far  up  as  thirty 
feet.  Often  a  tree  had  the  bark  stripped  from  but  one  side,  which  made 
a  dry  hard  surface  on  that  side  of  the  tree,  while  the  other  side  still  lived 
and  preserved  the  tree.  Trees  thus  treated  were  found  all  along  the  trail, 
but  at  some  points  there  would  be  found  groups  of  them  all  of  which  had 
been  so  denuded.  The  smooth  surface  thus  provided  was  covered  by  the 
Indians  with  outline  figures  of  animals  and  birds,  put  on  with  a  tenacious 
and  lasting  paint  of  two  colors  only  —  black  and  i"ed.  As  it  is  not  known 
that  trees  thus  treated  and  marked  were  found  at  any  other  place  in  the 
I'liited  StJites  this  circumstance  may  be  regarded  as  very  remarkable.  The 
signification  of  these  paintings  was  never  discovered,  and  it  is  not  known 
whether  they  were  made  by  but  one  tribe  or  by  all  the  tribes  inhabiting 
the  Dhio  Valley.  Trees  so  marked  were  to  be  found  all  along  the  valley 
of  the  Big  Sandy,  inchuling  both  branches,  but  so  far  as  I  could  ever  dis- 
I'liver  no  locality  had  them  in  so  great  abundance  as  the  country  around  the 
lower  course  of  Big  Paint  Creek.  Whether  the  custom  had  prevailed  among 
the  tribes  for  ages,  or  whether  it  was  of  recent  date  and  origin  was  never 
known.  It  is  known  that  the  Shawnees,  Delawares,  Wyandots,  Toteros, 
(  litToktis,  iintl  Iroquois,  regarded  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  with  peculiar  and 
laHting  veneration.  They  clung  to  it  with  tenacity,  and  it  was  the  last 
Mreain  in  Kentucky  to  ho  surrendered  by  them.  It  was  a  favorite  valley  of 
the  Mouiiil  Builders,  as  evidenced  by  many  remains  of  their  occupation. 

Big  I'aint  Creek  is  a  large  and  rapid  stream.  Just  below  the  town  of 
T'aintBville  if  flows  over  an  inclined  sandstone  bed.  This  point  has  various 
Inen!  un»ne«,  Huoh  as  the  "  flat  rock,"  "  flat  rock  ford,"  etc.  The  incline 
i«  »hj4rp.  iiiid  the  >\ater  in  passing  over  it  was  carried  with  force  suflicient 


Beyond  each  of  the  creeks  the  plateau  is  irregularly 
continued.  To  the  east  across  the  smaller  creek  there  is  a 
mound-like  hill  the  base  of  which  rests  upon  an  expanse 
of  country  of  the  same  elevation  as  tlie  plateau.  To  the 
north  between  the  smaller  stream  and  Big  J^aint  C'reCU 
stand  two  such  hills  with  bases  resting  upon  a  similai" 
elevation.  To  the  west  beyond  the  larger  creek  the  contin- 
uation of  the  plateau  is  narrow,  a  ledge  of  sandstone  with 
its  east  and  south  sides  almost  ])er])endicular.  At  a  little 
distance  south  of  this  ledge  and  entirely  detached  from  it 
is  a  large  mass  of  sandstone  with  sides  nearly  perpendic- 
ular. This  rock  rises  from  the  low-lying  creek  bottom 
and  has  a  flat  top  of  considerable  area  which  can  be  reached 
with  difficulty.     From  this  elevation  to  the  mouth  of  Big 

to  excavate  in  the  bed  of  the  creek  below  it  a  very  deep  pool  and  to  cut 
away  the  banks,  giving  the  expansion  the  appearance  of  a  lake  through 
which  the  creek  ran.  In  early  times  the  pool  was  spoken  of  as  bottomless, 
so  great  was  its  depth,  and  it  was  always  spoken  of  in  my  time  as  ' '  the 
deep  hole. ' '  The  principal  boat  yards  of  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  were  around 
this  remarkable  pool ;  hundreds  of  barges  for  carrying  tan  bark,  hoop  poles, 
staves,  sawed  lumber,  and  other  ])roducts  of  that  country  wt're  built  upon 
its  banks. 

Upon  the  south  bank  of  the  creek  against  the  ' '  flat  rock  ford  "  is  a 
low  cliff,  beneath  which  there  is  a  small  rockhouse  which  would  afford 
shelter  for  fifty  or  sixty  people.  This  locality  seemed  to  hold  a  fascination 
for  the  Indians.  On  the  top  of  the  cliff  a  great  elm  had  been  stripped  of 
its  bark  to  a  height  of  thirty  feet  or  more.  Winding  about  the  tree  and 
encircling  all  the  smooth  surface  made  by  taking  off  the  bark  was  a  huge 
rattlesnake  put  on  with  black  paint.  Many  other  trees  in  the  vicinity 
were  stripped  or  partly  stripped  of  their  bark,  and  painted,  various  an! 
mals  of  the  country  being  represented.  One  tree  in  the  upper  end  of  the 
creek  bottom  in  which  is  situated  the  town  of  Paintsville,  on  the  spot  where 
Rev.  Henry  Dickson  (Dixon,  it  is  now  written  by  his  descendants)  built  a 
grist  mill  to  be  operated  by  horse,  mule,  or  ox  power,  and  called  by  the  early 
settlers  a  "  horse  mill,"  was  painted;  it  was  a  giant  elm,  and  it  bore  a 
huge  bear  put  on  with  red  paint. 

There  were  many  salt  springs  or  "  licks  "  in  the  vicinity  of  where 
Paintsville  was  located.  Several  of  them  were  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  back 
of  the  town  and  are  now  covered  by  the  washings  from  the  cleared  hillsides 
above  them.  The  trees  about  these  licks  were  painted  by  the  Indians,  the 
characters  being  of  the  same  nature  as  those  already  described.  From  this 
cause  the  first  hunters  and  explorers  of  the  country  called  these  licks 
"  painted  licks,"  and  they  named  the  stream  ii\<ou  which  they  were  found 


Mudlick  Creek  it  is  half  a  mile,  and  the  land  is  a  bottom 
lying  just  above  overflow.  This  creek  bottom  is  an  old 
Indian  field.  At  the  time  of  the  coming  of  the  white  man 
it  contained  many  mounds.  There  is  one  very  large  mound 
or  mound-shaped  hill  covered  with  broken  sandstone. 
Human  bones,  stone  axes,  spear  and  arrow  heads  of  flint, 

Paint  Lick  Creek,  and  it  is  so  marked  on  the  map  of  Kentucky  in  the 
1797  edition  of  Imlay's  America.  The  name  was  given  by  Matthias  Har- 
man  and  his  associates.  When  Colonel  John  Preston,  Judge  French,  and 
others  of  Virginia  who  speculated  in  the  lands  of  the  Louisa  Eiver  Valley, 
wished  to  name  the  trading  station  which  they  established  on  the  present 
site  of  Paintsville  in  1790,  they  called  it  Paint  Lick.  The  Eev.  Henry 
Dickson  came  from  North  Carolina  and  bought  the  land  about  the  old 
station  and  laid  out  the  present  town  and  named  it  Paintsville.  Prestons- 
burg  was  also  founded  by  Col.  Preston  and  others,  and  first  called  Preston's 
Station.  The  station  was  established  in  1799.  After  Vancouver  left  the 
forks  of  the  Big  Sandy  a  town  was  established  there  and  named  Balclutha. 
On  the  Imlay  map  already  mentioned  Paint  Lick  and  Balclutha  are  both 
marked.  To  Johnson  County  belongs  the  honor  of  having  within  her  bounds 
the  sites  of  both  the  first  and  second  settlements  made  in  the  Big  Sandy 
Valley  and  in  Eastern  Kentucky. 

Above  the  mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek  there  is  a  river  bottom  extending 
up  the  Louisa  River  about  a  mile.  At  a  point  near  the  creek  bank,  and  at 
an  equal  distance  from  the  river,  there  is  a  large  mound,  the  work  of  pre- 
historic inhabitants  of  the  valley.  Several  hundred  feet  up  the  river,  and 
directly  south  of  this  mound,  there  is  another,  not  quite  so  large.  At  an 
equal  distance  south  of  this  second  mound  there  is  a  third  one  a  little 
smaller  than  the  second.  And  there  is  at  an  equal  distance  south  from 
this  third  mound  a  fourth  one  still  a  little  smaller  than  the  third.  There 
is  a  mound  just  back  of  the  rockhouse  overlooking  the  flat  rock  ford.  These 
mounds  were  covered  with  large  trees  when  first  seen  by  white  men.  The 
original  public  highway  up  the  Big  Sandy  Eiver  was  laid  out  to  cut  the 
north  side  of  the  second  mound.  In  making  this  public  road  the  mound 
was  cut,  and  the  skeleton  of  a  man  of  large  size  was  found.  It  was  en- 
closed in  a  sort  of  rude  box  made  by  placing  flat  thin  river  stones  about 
and  over  it.  It  was  on  the  land  of  Valentine  Van  Hoose,  and  I  saw  one  of 
his  sons  wantonly  destroy  the  skull  of  this  skeleton.  The  large  mound  was 
opencMl  a  few  years  since,  and  the  skeleton  of  a  man  was  found,  or  rather 
the  plain  imprint  of  one,  but  the  bones  had  perished.  These  mounds  were 
made  of  layers  of  different  kinds  of  earth,  and  there  were  several  layers 
of  ('lf>un  river  sand  in  them.  Layers  of  ashes  and  charcoal  were  found,  in- 
difating  that  it  may  have  been  the  custom  of  the  builders  to  burn  their 
doad  there,  or  place  the  ashes  of  their  dead  there  after  the  bodies  had  been 
burned  at  some  other  yilace.  The  Cherokee  Indians  said  to  the  early  set- 
tlers there,  in  speaking  of  these  mounds:  "  There  is  fire  in  all  those 
moimdH. "     What    thoy   meant   by   this   statement   they   could   not    explain. 

The  Falls  of  Ijittlc   Mudlick  Civck  in   Wint.-r 

\  I'liiihiiiifipli   hji   Liillnr.   Loiii.'ii.   A'//.  I 


carved  shells,  and  stone  pipes  were  here  turned  uj)  hi 
great  abundance  by  the  plows  of  the  first  settlers. 

The  diminutive  gorge  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek  is  a  thing 
of  wild  and  romantic  beauty.  The  first  fall  is  but  ten  feet. 
One  hundred  feet  below  is  a  fall  of  about  six  feet,  below 

Many  pipes,  arrowheads,  spearheads,  and  stone  axes  wore  found  in  and 
about  these  mounds.  The  best  specimen  of  the  stone  axe  I  ever  saw  was 
found  there  by  my  nephew  and  is  now  in  my  collection. 

To  the  southwest  of  Paintsville  and  in  plain  view  of  the  town  there  is  a 
solid  sandstone  ledge  rising  from  the  top  of  a  hill  to  a  height  far  above 
the  surrounding  forest.  This  immense  mass  of  sandstone  is  locally  known 
as  the  "  hanging  rock."  On  the  hilltop  back  of  this  great  cliff  there 
are  a  number  of  Indian  graves  covered  with  a  great  quantity  of  loose 
sandstone  fragments  which  have  evidently  been  carried  there  from  a  con- 
siderable distance.  Indian  graves  of  this  description  are  very  common  in 
East-em  Kentucky,  and  they  are  always  found  on  the  tops  of  ridges.  I 
never  saw  any  account  of  such  graves  in  any  work  on  the  Mound  Builders. 

Above  the  small  cliff  at  the  ' '  flat  rock  ford  ' '  the  first  explorers  found 
a  number  of  decaying  cabins.  The  Ohio  Indians  said  that  they  and  the 
French  had  built  them  many  years  before,  and  that  they  had  lived  there. 
They  also  said  that  the  Toteros  or  Shatara  Indians  had  lived  there  before 
they  built  the  cabins.  These  Totero  Indians  had  a  town  on  the  Lick  Fork 
of  Jennie's  Creek,  extending  from  the  forks  of  that  stream  to  the  point 
now  known  as  Hager  Hill.  The  Shawnees  and  Cherokees  pointed  out  to  the 
early  settlers  the  sites  of  many  towns  occupied  by  the  Totero  Indians.  I 
shall  locate  them  in  some  future  work. 

It  is  a  tradition  in  our  family  that  some  of  the  Connellys,  probably 
Harmon  Connelly  and  his  brother  Thomas,  Daniel  Boone,  Matthias  Har- 
man,  Walter  Mankins,  and  a  number  of  other  parties,  among  them  James 
Skaggs  and  Henry  Skaggs,  descended  the  Louisa  River  about  1768  in 
search  of  a  suitable  place  to  settle.  They  camped  about  these  old  cabins 
at  the  mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek  for  six  weeks.  The  river  and  creek  bot- 
toms were  covered  with  a  rank  growth  of  cane,  much  of  it  so  high  that 
it  would  conceal  a  man  on  horseback.  The  fierceness  of  the  Indians  made 
it  impossible  for  them  to  locate  there  then.  They  killed  much  game.  Great 
herds  of  buffalo  roamed  the  country  at  the  time.  .lohn  Howe,  Esq  ,  the 
famous  millwright,  son-in-law-  of  Rev.  Henry  Dickson,  has  often  told  me  of 
this  journey  of  the  Connellys,  Boone,  and  others.  He  also  said  that  the 
river  was  sometimes  so  full  of  buffalo  wallowing  in  the  shoals  that  it  was 
impossible  to  get  a  canoe  either  up  or  down  until  the  shaggy  animals  had 
departed.  Mr.  Howe  and  many  other  pioneers  of  Johnson  County  have 
often  told  me  that  Simon  Kenton  occupied  the  old  cabins  at  the  mouth  of 
Big  Paint  Creek  two  winters,  or  parts  of  two  winters,  1773-74  and  1774-75. 
He  hunted  in  that  region  during  those  winters  and  it  is  very  probable  that 
the  old  settlers  were  right  in  saying  he  lived  in  one  of  these  old  cabins. 


which  the  stream  expands  into  a  lakelet  fringed  with 
mountain  evergreens.  A  short  distance  below  this  lakelet 
the  stream  plunges  some  fifty  or  sixty  feet  into  pools 
overhung  with  the  ever-present  mountain  evergreens. 
From  this  point  the  stream  has  a  rapid  descent  over  shoals 
of  boulders  and  brook-stones  to  the  larger  creek.  The 
gorge  was  heavily  timbered  with  hemlocks,  oaks,  beeches, 
holly-trees,  laurel  and  ivy. 

The  Shawnees  told  Mrs.  Wiley  that  in  ancient  times 
their  ancestors  had  their  villages  about  the  junction  of  the 
Mudlick  creeks,  also  all  along  Big  Paint  Creek  from  the 
mouth  of  Big  Mudlick  Creek  to  the  Big  Sandy  River.  They 
also  told  her  that  they  never  passed  through  that  part  of 
the  country  without  visiting  Little  Mudlick  Creek  and  the 
country  about  their  ancient  village. 


The  Indians  holding  Mrs.  Wiley  in  captivity  arrived  at 
the  mouth  of  Little  Miidlick  Creek  about  the  first  of  April, 
possibly  as  much  as  a  week  or  ten  days  earlier  tlian  that. 
They  took  up  their  abode  in  a  rockhouse  in  the  face  of  the 
cliff  on  the  east  side  of  the  plateau.  This  rockhouse  was 
just  below  the  falls  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek,  but  at  a  higher 
elevation  in  the  cliff  than  is  the  bed  of  the  creek  at  the  falls. 
The  ledge  at  the  entrance  of  the  rockhouse  overhangs  the 
creek  which  runs  a  hundred  feet  or  more  below  it,  and  the 
entrance  is  sixty  feet  at  least  below  the  top  of  the  cliff.  It 
is  reached  by  following  a  narrow  ledge  along  the  face  of 
the  cliff  from  a  point  opposite  the  upper  falls.  This  rock- 
house is  of  considerable  extent.  It  afforded  a  safe  retreat 
for  the  party  and  one  almost  inaccessible  to  enemies  if 
properly  defended  by  even  a  few  persons.  It  afforded  a 
cool  and  pleasant  habitation  in  summer. 

The  manner  of  life  of  the  party  was  not  unlike  the  daily 
life  in  an  Indian  village.  Mrs.  Wiley  was  compelled  to 
]ierform  all  the  drudgery-  of  the  camp.  The  warriors 
lounged  about  the  caves  and  slept  when  not  hunting  or 
scouting.  Hunting  was  not  extensively  engaged  in,  sum- 
mer peltries  being  of  poor  quality.  Only  enough  game 
was  killed  to  furnish  food  for  the  party.  Usually  turkeys, 
deer,  and  buffalo  were  easily  found  near  the  cam]),  though 
the  Indians  often  went  to  the  great  lick  on  Big  Mudlick 
Creek  to  kill  buffalo,  especially  when  visited  l)y  other 
bands.  They  sometimes  hunted  on  what  is  now  known 
as  Barnett's  Creek,  also  on  Big  Paint  Creek  between  that 
stream  and  Big  Mudlick  Creek.     They  sometimes  recinircd 


Mrs.  Wiley  to  follow  them  and  bring  in  the  game  they 
killed.  She  was  shown  how  to  care  for  the  skins  of  the 
animals  killed.  She  gathered  the  wood  for  the  camp  fires. 
As  the  Indians  had  no  axe  she  was  obliged  to  gather  the 
dry  branches  which  had  fallen  from  the  trees,  and  before 
the  smnmer  was  over  these  were  exhausted  near  the  camp. 
,The  French  and  the  Indians  had  discovered  lead  in  that 
vicinity,  and  Mrs.  Wiley  was  made  to  carry  the  ore  from 
the  lead  mines  to  the  east  edge  of  the  plateau  and  there 
smelt  it  out  to  be  used  for  bullets  for  the  guns.  To  do  this 
she  had  to  collect  a  great  quantity  of  wood  and  build  a  hot 
fire  which  had  to  be  maintained  for  some  hours.  When 
the  lead  was  melted  from  the  ore  it  was  conducted  through 
small  trenches  to  the  bottom  of  a  depression  which  Mrs. 
Wiley  had  made  for  the  purpose  and  which  was  to  be  seen 
as  late  as  1880.  It  was  just  above  the  entrance  to  the 
rockhouse.  She  was  also  made  to  plant  some  corn  in  the 
old  Indian  field  which  had  been  the  site  of  the  old  Indian 

The  Indians  remained  at  the  camp  on  some  mysterious 
mission,  as  Mrs.  Wiley  judged.  They  were  often  visited 
by  other  bands,  some  of  which  contained  as  many  as  twen- 
ty Indians.  Sometimes  these  visiting  bands  remained 
several  days ;  at  other  times  they  departed  in  a  few  hours. 
Mrs.  Wiley  learned  the  Shawnee  language,  also  something 
of  other  Indian  tongues.  She  made  many  efforts  to  hear 
wliat  the  visiting  Indians  said  to  her  captors,  but  was 
never  able  to  get  any  information  of  benefit  to  her.  The 
Shawnee  chief  told  Mrs.  Wiley  he  would  take  her  to  the 
Indian  towns  beyond  the  Ohio  when  Indian  summer  came 
on,  at  which  time  he  expected  a  large  force  of  Indians  to 
arrive  and  relieve  him.  Mrs.  Wiley  sought  an  opportunity 
to  escape  after  this  conversation  with  the  old  Shawnee, 
but  none  presented  itself  that  she  could  believe  promised 
siK'coss.  She  was  entirely  ignorant  of  the  general  physi- 
cal iVatnres  of  the  country  in  which  she  was  held,  although 

torture  of  tlie  ("aptivo 


she  believed  that  she  was  nearer  the  Virginia  settlements 
than  when  she  was  on  the  Ohio  River.  She  had  feigned 
sleep  in  the  hope  that  her  captors  would  say  something 
about  the  settlements  of  white  people  that  she  might  hear, 
but  they  never  did  so.  There  had  been  times  when  she 
was  out  of  sight  of  her  captors  and  might  have  escaped, 
but  never  having  been  able  to  bring  herself  to  believe  the 
effort  would  prove  successful,  she  had  waited  for  a  more 
favorable  opportunity.  As  the  time  approached  when  she 
was  to  be  taken  to  the  Indian  towns  she  became  more 
determined  upon  escape,  or  upon  death  in  the  effort.  Her 
resolution  in  this  matter  was  overturned  by  an  event  whol- 
ly unexpected. 

One  day  about  the  end  of  October  the  Indians  were 
aroused  from  their  indolent  loungings  by  the  quavering 
war-whoop  cried  by  some  party  about  the  mouth  of  Big 
Mudlick  Creek.  The  Shawnee  chief  answered  the  war- 
QYj,  and  it  was  repeated.  The  Shawnee  chief  informed 
his  party  that  the  Cherokee  chief  had  been  on  tlie  war- 
path, had  lost  some  of  his  warriors,  and  was  now  coming 
into  camp  with  a  captive  white  man.  War-whoops  were 
exchanged,  and  g-uns  were  fired  by  both  parties.  The 
Shawnee  chief  led  his  party  to  the  plateau  to  receive  the 
Cherokee  chief  and  his  warriors,  who  soon  arrived.  The 
Cherokee  chief  was  followed  by  a  mongrel  band  of  some 
twenty  Indians,  and  he  brought  with  him  a  white  man  as 
prisoner.  Mrs.  Wiley  supposed  this  prisoner  to  be  about 
twenty  years  old,  though  she  was  not  permitted  to  come 
near  enough  to  him  to  have  any  conversation  with  him. 
This  captive  was  terribly  beaten  when  he  arrived  on  tlio 

Mrs.  Wiley  was  sent  back  to  the  rockhouse  when  the 
Cherokee  chief  had  talked  with  the  Shawnee  chief.  The 
Cherokee  gave  her  a  kettle  and  told  her  to  cook  him  some 
meat  as  soon  as  she  could.  She  built  up  a  fire  in  the  rock- 
house  and  slung  the  kettle,  which  she  filled  with  bear  meat 


and  venison.  She  could  hear  the  mad  howling,  whooping, 
and  screeching  of  the  warriors  on  the  lieight  above  her, 
also  the  discharge  of  guns  and  the  thumping  and  stamping 
of  feet  in  an  Indian  dance.  Shortly  after  dark  the  whole 
band  came  down  from  the  plateau,  and  the  captive  was  not 
with  them.  It  did  not  take  her  long  to  gather  from  the 
convei-sation  of  the  Indians  that  the  prisoner  had  been 
tortured  at  the  stake.  The  Cherokee  chief  was  in  a  great 
rage,  sullen  and  savage.  He  did  not  remain  long  in  the 
camp  but  returned  to  the  heights  above  with  his  hands  full 
of  meat  from  the  kettle.  Mrs.  Wiley  was  rudely  treated 
by  the  Indians  recently  arrived,  and  the  Shawnee  chief 
and  his  followei's  were  excited  and  blood-thirsty.  The 
cam))  was  overflowing  with  whooping  Indians  threatening 
to  kill  her,  and  for  the  first  time  the  Shawnee  chief  did  not 
stand  her  friend.  She  appealed  to  him  but  he  did  nothing 
to  quiet  the  howling  mob,  and  he  left  the  camp  to  join  the 
Cherokee.  Finally  the  Indians  left  the  camp  and  went 
above,  yelling  along  the  gorge  above  the  falls.  Mrs. 
Wiley  was  more  at  ease  when  she  heard  them  whooping 
on  the  ])lateau,  but  what  the  night  would  bring  forth  she 
could  not  tell.'"'^ 

An  hour  or  two  after  dark  a  band  of  Indians,  all  of  the 
late  arrivals,  came  down  from  the  assembly.     They  tied 

'•'-  Mr.  Wiley  wsis  ])()sitive  of  the  death  of  this  white  man.  Mrs. 
Wiley  (lid  not  see  him  tortured,  nor  did  she  see  his  dead  body.  She  said 
the  captive  was  tortured  on  the  plateau  overlooking  Big  Mudlick  Creek. 
The  fire  about  which  the  Indians  were  gathered  when  she  was  taken  to  the 
plateau  was  nearer  the  falls  of  Little  Mudlick.  Mr.  Wiley  and  I  searched 
the  plateau  more  than  once  for  evidences  of  fire,  and  at  a  point  near  where 
Mrs.  Wiley  believed  the  captive  was  burned  we  found  charcoal,  but  of  course 
tliert'  was  no  way  in  which  it  could  be  connected  with  the  death  of  the 
captive.  In  many  versions  of  the  story  of  Mrs.  Wiley  there  was  no  men- 
tion (»f  the  death  of  this  prisoner.  As  his  name  was  never  known  and 
nothing  was  known  about  him  there  was  little  to  keep  the  interest  in  his 
death  in  the  minds  of  the  peo]de.  The  older  generation,  though,  had  a  dis- 
tinct recollection  uf  the  burning  of  this  young  man.  He  came  to  Mrs. 
Wiley  ill  liiT  striiiiyc  liicjun  and  pointed  out  the  settlements  of  the  white 

Mrs.  Wilcv  tied  to  the  strike  to  l)f  tortui't-d  hv  the  lii»li;ins 


Mrs.  Wiley's  hands  with  a  stri])  of  raw  hide,  hy  one  end 
of  which  she  was  led  to  the  heig-lit  where  the  Indians  were 
assembled  aboitt  a  big*  fire.  The  dancing  ceased  when  she 
arrived.  The  Cherokee  chief  a])peared  as  the  connnander 
of  the  Indians  and  told  her  that  she  was  to  be  burned. 
She  appealed  to  the  Shawnee  chief,  but  he  made  no  definite 
answer.  There  was  no  sympathy  for  her  in  the  mad 
band.  She  remembered  the  cruelties  and  many  outrages 
she  had  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  Indians,  and  as  no 
prospect  of  escape  came  to  her  or  seemed  likely  to  come 
in  the  future  even  should  she  live,  she  was  the  more  easily 
reconciled  to  death.  In  after  years  she  affinned  that  con- 
cern for  her  life  and  all  earthly  things  departed  from  her, 
leaving  her  calm  and  collected.  In  this  frame  of  mind 
she  was  bound  to  the  tree,  a  small  oak  from  which  all  the 
lower  branches  had  been  cut.  Her  demeanor  seemed  to 
please  the  Cherokee  chief.  Because  of  her  courage  or 
from  some  other  cause  which  was  never  known  to  her,  pro- 
ceedings in  the  execution  were  suspended.  The  Indians 
retired  for  council  and  talked  for  a  long  time,  as  Mrs. 
Wiley  believed.  Wlien  they  returned  the  Cherokee  chief 
informed  Mrs.  Wiley  that  he  had  bought  her  from  the 
Shawnee  and  that  he  would  take  her  to  his  town  on  the 
Little  Tennessee  where  she  could  teach  his  wives  (he  spoke 
as  though  he  had  quite  a  number  of  them)  to  write  and  to 
weave  cloth  like  her  dress.  He  unbound  her  and  led  her 
back  to  the  camp  in  the  rockhouse,  followed  by  the  Shaw- 
nee chief.  There  the  fire  was  lighted  anew.  The  Chero- 
kee chief  produced  a  buckskin  bag  from  which  he  counted 
down  to  the  Shawnee  five  hundred  little  silver  brooches 
about  as  large  as  the  silver  dime  of  to-day,  the  ])rice  he 
had  agreed  to  pay  for  Mrs.  Wiley.  They  were  received 
by  the  Shawnee  as  though  he  had  a  supreme  contemi)t  for 
money,  and  swept  by  him  from  the  buckskin  upon  which 
they  had  been  counted  to  him  into  a  bag  similar  to  that 


from  which  they  had  been  taken.    This  bag  he  placed  in 
his  pack  and  lay  down  by  the  fire  to  sleep. 

The  Cherokee  chief  bound  Mrs.  Wiley  with  raw  thongs 
cut  from  a  buffalo  hide,  which  he  drew  very  tight,  causing 
her  great  pain.  He  returned  to  the  plateau  and  was  gone 
a  long  time.  He  came  back  with  several  of  his  band  some 
time  in  the  night,  and  all  slept  in  the  rockhouse. 


It  was  late  in  the  day  when  John  Borders  returned  home 
from  the  search  for  his  sheep,  and  a  thick  and  foggy 
darkness  was  settling  over  the  valley  of  Walker's  Creek. 
When  he  found  that  Mrs.  Wiley  had  not  yet  arrived  at 
his  house  he  feared  that  harm  had  come  to  lier  and  her 
family,  and  her  sister,  Mrs.  Borders,  was  distressed  and 
anxious.  Borders  sought  a  neighbor  who  lived  near  hira 
and  together  they  went  to  Wiley's  house,  which  they  found 
partly  burned.  After  some  time  spent  in  a  cautious  ex- 
amination of  the  place  they  ventured  to  enter  the  house, 
where  they  found  the  bodies  of  the  slain  children.  The 
animals  about  the  place  were  excited  and  Borders  he- 
lieved  the  Indians  were  yet  lying  in  wait  to  do  further 
murder.  Not  finding  Mrs.  Wiley  and  the  young  child 
they  were  uncertain  of  their  fate,  but  they  supposed  none 
of  the  family  had  escaped  death.  No  light  was  kindled 
by  Borders  and  his  companion,  and  after  a  short  time 
spent  in  making  the  examination  by  which  they  learned 
the  facts  set  out  above  they  left  the  house  and  alanned 
the  settlers. 

The  Indians  had  been  seen  by  no  one,  and  the  uncer- 
tainty in  the  minds  of  the  people  as  to  their  number  and 
further  purpose  spread  terror  in  the  settlement.  No 
attempt  could  be  made  to  follow  the  Indians  during  the 
night.  Those  most  capable  of  determining  just  what  to 
do  in  this  extremity  were  out  of  the  settlement  and  it  was 
not  known  when  they  would  return.  On  the  following 
morning  a  number  of  the  settlers  gathered  at  Wiley's 
cabin  and  looked  the  premises  over  carefully,  but  the 
trail  of  the  savages  was  not  discovered.     From  some  cause 


it  was  supposed  that  the  Indians  had  gone  down  the  New 
River.  Thomas  Wiley  and  a  dozen  settlers  followed  the 
Indian  road  down  that  stream  hoping  to  come  up  with  the 
Indians,  but  no  tidings  of  Mrs.  Wiley  came  from  that 

In  the  afternoon  of  the  day  after  the  attack  upon  Wiley's 
liouse,  Matthias  Harman  and  the  hunters  returned  to  the 
settlement.  The  swollen  streams  and  the  heavy  loads 
carried  by  their  horses  had  delayed  them  twenty-four 
hours ;  but  for  these  impediments  they  would  have  arrived 
in  time  to  have  prevented  the  murders  committed  by  the 
Indians.  The  confidence  of  the  hunters  that  they  would 
arrive  in  the  settlement  before  the  Indians,  had  caused 
them  to  neglect  to  send  a  runner  to  warn  the  settlers  of 
their  danger. 

Immediately  upon  his  return  Matthias  Harman  went  to 
the  house  of  Wiley  where  he  found  many  of  the  settlers. 
He  made  a  minute  examination  of  the  country  around 
the  house.  In  the  hills  north  of  the  house  he  found  evi- 
dences that  the  Indians  had  passed  that  way.  He  followed 
this  discovery  some  miles,  and  upon  his  return  to  the 
cabin  he  assured  the  settlers  that  Mrs.  Wiley  was  alive 
and  a  prisoner,  that  she  was  carrying  her  child  which 
had  been  spared,  and  that  the  Indians  would  follow  the 
Tug  Uiver  war-trail  and  try  to  cross  the  Ohio  to  their 
towns.  It  was  his  opinion  that  the  Cherokee  chief  was 
the  leader  of  the  band,  the  number  of  which  he  had  deter- 
mineil  from  the  trail.  He  was  confident  that  he  could  over- 
take the  Indians  and  recover  the  prisoners.  His  purpose 
to  do  tliis  was  determined  upon  at  once. 

Harman  was  a  bold  and  active  man.  He  believed  this 
raid  was  made  more  by  accident  than  design  and  that  it 
indicated  no  uprising  of  the  Indians  nor  any  purj^ose  to 
harass  the  settlements.  It  was  not  regarded  as  of  suffi- 
cient im])ortance  to  delay  the  settlement  to  be  made  at  the 
mouth  of  John's  Creek.     He  assembled  those  interested 




in  that  enterprise  and  gave  them  instructions  as  to  what 
they  should  carry  with  them,  when  to  set  out,  wliat  to  do  in 
case  they  should  arrive  before  he  could  return  there  from 
pursuit  of  the  Indians,  and  the  most  favorable  route  for 
them  to  take  on  the  journey.  There  were  about  twenty- 
five  men  in  this  colony,  but  the  exact  number  is  not  known, 
and  their  names  are  lost  to  us.  We  know  that  among 
them  were  Matthias  Ifarnian,  Absalom  Lusk,  Henry 
Skaggs,  James  Skaggs  liis  brother,  Robert  TIawes,  Daniel 
Harman,  Adam  Harman,  and  Henry  Harman.  It  is  be- 
lieved that  a  man  named  Horn,  also  one  named  Leek,  were 
with  the  colonists.  Harman  selected  ten  of  the  most 
experienced  Indian  fighters  to  go  with  him  in  ])ursuit  of 
the  ])arty  having  Mrs.  Wiley  and  her  child  in  cai>tivity. 
Thomas  Wiley  was  not  a  member  of  the  colony  and  did  not 
go  out  with  tliem.^" 

Matthias  Harman  and  his  company  of  hunters  sot  out 
early  in  the  day  in  juirsuit  of  the  Indians.  So  confident 
that  he  was  right  did  Harman  feel  that  he  did  not  at  first 
attem]it  to  follow  the  trail  made  by  the  savages,  but  went 
directly  to  the  head  waters  of  the  Bluestone  River  and 
crossed  the  Great  Flat  Top  Mountain.  He  found  the  trail 
of  the  Indians  in  the  hills  about  the  head  of  the  Tug  River ; 
it  followed  the  old  Indian  wai^iath  as  Harman  had  con- 
jectured. This  ancient  way  was  so  well  defined  that  it 
required  no  effort  to  discover  and  follow  it,  which  made 
their  pursuit  rapid  and  certain.  Each  camp  of  the  In- 
dians was  discovered,  and  it  was  i)lain  that  the  Indians 
were  being  gained  upon  every  day. 

If  the  Indians  had  not  left  the  old  war-path  and  turned 
down  the  small  streams  to  Tug  River  they  would  have 
been  overhauled  by  Harman  and  his  party  in  a  few  hours. 

16  Mr.  Wiley  had  not  returnod  from  tlio  i)ursiiit  made  down  the  New 
River,  so  his  son  always  said.  He  also  said  that  his  father  was  unnerved  by 
the  destruction  of  his  family,  and  that  he  was  at  the  time  unfit  for  the  war- 


It  was  difficult  traveling  on  horseback  along  the  small 
streams,  for  they  were  frequently  choked  with  thickets. 
This  caused  delay  when  rapid  movement  was  so  necessary. 
Hai-man  saw  that  the  Indians  were  not  far  in  advance  and 
were  aware  of  the  presence  of  the  party  in  pursuit.  Just 
before  night  they  found  the  body  of  Mrs.  Wiley's  child, 
which  they  buried  in  a  shallow  grave  hastily  dug  with 
tomahawks  and  scalping  knives.  A  few  minutes  after  the 
Indians  had  plunged  into  the  water  and  crossed  Tug  River 
Harman  and  his  men  stood  upon  the  spot  they  had  left. 
It  was  impossible  to  get  the  horses  across  the  river  in  its 
flooded  condition  on  such  a  night.  The  party  camped  on 
the  bank  of  the  river  and  spent  the  night  in  building  rafts 
upon  which  to  carry  over  the  baggage  in  the  morning. 

HaiTnan  effected  a  safe  crossing  early  the  following 
day.  It  was  past  noon  when  he  again  found  the  Indian 
trail,  which  wound  through  a  country  so  rough  and  hilly 
that  it  was  well  nigh  impossible  to  follow  it  with  horses. 
When  he  arrived  at  the  point  where  the  Indians  had 
crossed  the  Louisa  River  it  was  the  unanimous  opinion 
of  all  the  hunters  that  it  was  useless  to  follow  the  trail 
further.  They  all  believed  that  it  would  be  impossible 
to  come  up  with  the  Indians.  Mrs.  Wiley  was  relieved  of 
the  burden  of  her  child,  and  the  Indians  being  apprised 
of  the  pursuit  would  hold  their  course  to  the  rough,  bush- 
grown,  stony  ridges  where  horses  could  scarcely  go.  So, 
with  regret,  the  pursuit  was  abandoned  at  the  Louisa 

From  the  point  where  the  Indian  trail  was  abandoned 
Harman  and  his  company  ascended  the  Louisa  River  to 
the  mouth  of  John's  Creek  and  went  into  camp  in  the  old 
iiuiiting  lodge  built  there  by  Harman  more  than  thirty 
years  before.  There  the  river  runs  against  the  bluff  on 
its  west  side,  leaving  a  broad  bottom  on  the  east  side  of 
the  river  below  the  mouth  of  John's  Creek.  It  was  an 
ideal  i>hice  for  a  pioneer  settlement.     The  great  war-path 


up  the  river  ran  on  the  west  side  of  the  stream  at  that 
point.  There  the  stream  is  deep.  John's  Creek  is  a 
stream  of  considerable  size,  having  its  sources  in  the  moun- 
tain ranges  about  the  head  waters  of  the  Tug  and  Louisa 
rivers.  Should  the  larger  streams  be  beset  with  Indians 
the  valley  of  the  smaller  one  would  afford  a  safe  way  to 
the  settlements  in  Virginia. 

The  bottom  in  which  it  was  designed  to  build  the  fort  of 
the  settlement  was  then  covered  with  trees  ranging  in  size 
from  the  shrub  to  the  giant  sycamore  with  its  girth  of 
forty  feet.  These  trees  were  of  several  varieties -birch, 
beech,  maple,  linn,  oak,  poplar,  and  others.  It  was  cov- 
ered with  a  thick  growth  of  cane  which  furnished  winter 
pastures  for  buffalo,  elk,  and  deer,  and  which  was  an  indi- 
cation of  deep  and  lasting  fertility. 

The  colonists  expected  directly  from  Virginia  did  not 
arrive  for  some  days  after  the  coming  of  Harman  and  his 
company.  Their  horses  were  heavily  packed,  and  their 
progress  through  forests  and  over  streams  was  necessar- 
ily slow.     High  water  hindered  much. 

The  site  selected  for  the  fort  was  almost  half  a  mile 
below  the  mouth  of  John's  Creek  and  about  one  hundred 
yards  back  from  the  east  bank  of  the  Louisa  River.  The 
fort  was  built  on  the  plan  common  to  the  forts  in  frontier 
settlements.  It  was  about  twenty  feet  square  and  two 
stories  in  height.  The  upper  story  projected  beyond  the 
walls  of  the  lower  story  about  two  feet  on  eveiy  side,  and 
this  extra  space  was  floored  with  lieavy  timbers  in  which 
loop-holes  were  cut  through  which  to  fire  down  upon 
besieging  Indians  should  they  ever  come  to  such  close 
quarters.  The  walls  of  both  stories  were  provided  with 
openings  through  which  to  fire  upon  a  foe.  Tlie  door  or 
gate  was  made  of  split  oak  timbers  six  inches  in  thickness. 
It  was  hung  upon  strong  wooden  hinges  made  by  the 
hunters,  opened  inward,  and  was  secured  by  an  immense 
beam  of  oak.     The  roof  sloped  up  from  eaoli  of  the  four 


sides  of  the  fort  to  a  point  in  the  center,  and  was  made  of 
tliick  slabs  of  white  oak  timber  ' '  pinned "  to  the  log  "  ribs ' ' 
or  rafters  with  long  wooden  pins  or  pegs  driven  into  holes 
bored  with  an  auger.  A  small  stream  flowed  from  the 
hills  back  of  the  bottom  and  passed  close  by  the  fort,  and 
upon  it  the  settlers  relied  for  water.  The  timber  about 
the  fort  was  cut  off  close  to  the  ground  and  burned  back 
the  full  space  of  rifle  range.  This  was  done  to  deprive 
the  Indians  of  cover  should  they  ever  besiege  the  fort. 

This  rude  and  strong  ])uilding  thus  erected  by  the  rough 
backwoodsmen  of  the  A^irginia  frontier,  all  of  whom  were 
as  brave  and  hardy  as  any  who  ever  founded  a  frontier 
post,  was  the  famous  blockhouse.  The  settlement  com- 
menced by  its  erection  was  called 

haeman's  station 

It  was  the  first  settlement  made  in  Eastern  Kentucky. 
There  was  at  that  time  no  settlement  in  either  of  the 
present  counties  of  Pike,  Floyd,  Lawrence,  Boyd,  Greenup, 
Carter,  Elliott,  Morgan,  Wolfe,  Magoffin,  Breathitt,  Knott, 
Letcher,  or  Martin.  There  were  no  settlements  on  the 
Tug  River,  and  none  in  any  of  the  present  counties  of 
West  Virginia  touching  that  stream. 

This  fort  was  built  by  Matthias  Harman  and  back- 
woodsmen whom  he  had  induced  to  cast  their  lots  with 
liini  in  the  wilderness. 

The  fort  was  built  in  the  winter  of  1787-88.^' 

17  In  the  preface  it  was  announced  that  the  dates  fixed  by  Mr.  Wiley 
would  be  followed.  This  is  the  date  fixed  by  him.  E  have  no  doubt 
as  to  its  aeoiiracy.  F  refer  again  to  the  inap  to  be  found  in  Imlay 's  Amer- 
ican Topnfini])lni.  The  author  says:  "  In  order  to  communicate  a  distinct 
idea  of  the  present  complexion  of  the  State  of  Kentucky,  I  have  drawn  a 
map  from  the  best  authorities,  from  which  you  will  discern  that  Kentucky 
is  nlron<ly  divi<led  into  nine  counties;  and  villages  are  springing  up  in  every 
I«irt  within  its  limts,  while  roads  have  been  opened  to  shorten  the  distance 
to  Virpinin."  llannan's  Station  is  correctly  located  on  the  said  map. 
The  «itc  i»f  Vancouver's  attempted  settlement  is  marked  "  Vancouvers. " 
Hclntive  u,  ttint  attemy.t  T  set  out  an  afTidavit  made  bv  .John  Planks  in  18:^8. 


wheu  Hanks   was  in  his  seventy-fifth  year.     It   was   first   i-ublislunl   by   Dr 
Ely  in  his  work  on  the  Big  Sandy  Valley : 

"  1  was  employed  by  Charles  Vancouver  in  the  month  of  February,  1789. 
along  with  several  other  men,  to  go  to  the  forks  of  Big  Sandy  River,  for 
the  purijose  of  settling,  clearing  and  improving  the  Vancouver  tract,  situ 
ated  on  the  point  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Tug  and  Levisa  Forks,  and 
near  where  the  town  of  Louisa  now  stands.  In  March,  1789,  shortly  after 
Vancouver  and  his  men  settled  on  said  point,  the  Indians  stole  all  their 
horses  but  one,  which  they  killed.  We  all,  about  ten  in  number,  except 
three  or  four  of  Vancouver's  men,  remained  there  during  that  year,  and 
left  the  next  March,  except  three  or  four  men  left  to  hold  possession.  Hut 
they  were  driven  off  in  April,  1790,  by  the  Indians.  Vancouver  went  East 
in  May,  1789,  for  a  stock  of  goods,  and  returned  in  the  fall  of  the  same  year. 
We  had  to  go  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kanawha  River,  a  distance  of  eighty- 
seven  miles,  for  corn,  and  no  one  was  settled  near  us;  probably  the  nearest 
was  a  fort  about  thirty  or  forty  miles  away,  and  this  was  built  may  be 
early  in  1790.  The  fort  we  built  consisted  of  three  cabins  and  some  pens 
made  of  logs,  like  corn  cribs,  and  reaching  from  one  cabin  to  the  other. 

' '  We  raised  some  vegetables  and  deadened  several  acres  of  ground, 
say  about  eighteen,  on  the  point,  but  the  horses  being  stolen,  we  were  unabh- 
to  raise  a  crop.  (Signed)  John  H.\nks." 

The  nearest  fort,  "  about  thirty  or  forty  miles  away,"  which  was 
"  built  may  be  early  in  1790."  was  the  fort  erected  in  rebuilding  the 
blockhouse  put  up  by  Matthias  Harman  and  his  associates  in  the  winter 
of  1787-88.  and  which  had  been  destroyed  by  the  Indians,  who  burned  it. 
The  settlers  who  had  been  obliged  to  return  to  Virginia  at  the  time  of  its 
destruction,  returned  with  reinforcements  in  the  winter  of  1789-90  and 
built  another  fort  in  the  Blockhouse  Bottom.  Although  often  attacked,  they 
never  again  abandoned  the  settlement. 


After  passing  through  the  horrors  of  such  an  ordeal  as 
that  to  which  she  had  been  subjected  Mrs.  Wiley  found  it 
impossible  to  sleep.  She  had  nerved  herself  to  face  death 
with  resignation,  and  her  nerves  were  unstrung  with  the 
relaxation  following  her  unexpected  deliverance  from  the 
stake.  And  she  was  troubled  by  the  change  of  masters. 
She  feared  the  Cherokee.  He  was  in  every  way  different 
from  the  Shawnee  chief.  He  was  quick  and  energetic  of 
action,  cruel,  savage,  and  treacherous  by  nature,  always 
restless  and  anxious  to  be  moving.  While  she  believed 
that  she  owed  her  life  to  his  interference  in  her  behalf  she 
was  not  sure  the  future  would  prove  that  she  would  have 
much  to  be  thankful  for  in  that  matter.  Her  chance  of 
escape  seemed  cut  off  and  that  troubled  her ;  she  regretted 
that  slie  had  not  made  the  effort  to  escape  months  before. 
While  pondering  over  these  things  she  fell  into  a  broken 
and  troubled  sleep.  She  found  this  a  most  strange  sleep 
for  she  seemed  more  awake  than  ever.  She  was  never 
sure  she  was  asleep  at  all,  but  she  always  insisted  that  she 
saw  this  vision  or  had  this  remarkable  dream:  The 
young  man  so  lately  tortured  by  the  Indians  came  to  her 
bearing  in  his  hand  a  lamp  made  from  the  bleached  skull 
of  a  sheep,  the  brain  cavity  of  which  was  filled  with  buffalo 
Uillow  in  wliich  was  a  wick  that  was  burning  brightly. 
The  young  man  did  not  speak,  but  by  signs  indicated  that 
she  must  follow  him.  Then  her  bonds  fell  away.  The 
young  man  threaded  the  deep  defiles  of  the  forest  with  the 
flame  of  his  lamp  fluttering  in  the  wind.  He  did  not  look 
hack  to  sec  if  she  wore  following  him.  Arriving  at  a  steep 
moiiiitaiii  oi"  great  height  he  rapidly  ascended  it.     Wlien 


he  reached  the  top  he  blew  strongly  upon  his  lamp-flauio 
which  immediately  leaped  to  a  height  sufficient  to  reveal 
the  whole  country  below.  She  looked  where  he  pointed 
across  a  river.  There  stood  a  fort  erected  by  white  men. 
As  she  was  anxiously  appealing  to  him  for  infonnation 
as  to  who  dwelt  there  the  light  paled,  flickered  a  moment, 
then  was  gone.  She  was  left  alone  in  the  darkness,  and 
was  immediately  roused  from  her  slumber.  This  dream 
or  manifestation  or  phenomena,  by  whatever  name,  was 
repeated  twice,  the  last  time  being  just  as  the  Indians 
began  to  stir  in  the  camp.^® 

Mrs.  Wiley  was  unbound  by  the  Cherokee,  and  informed 
by  him  that  it  was  his  purpose  to  set  out  on  the  journey  to 
his  town  in  a  day  or  two,  but  that  he  was  going  that  morn- 
ing to  the  great  buffalo  lick  on  Big  Mudlick  Creek  to  kill 
game.  It  was  not  long  until  the  whole  band  of  Indians 
left  the  camp.  Mrs.  Wiley  was  again  bound  and  left  in 
the  camp  in  the  rockhouse.  She  soon  fell  into  a  deep 
sleep  from  which  she  was  wakened  by  the  roaring  of  a 
heavy  storm  of  wind  and  rain.  The  instant  that  she  awoke 
the  peculiar  dream  came  to  her  mind  with  gi-eat  force.  It 
seemed  to  be  a  call  to  her  to  make  an  effort  to  escape ;  at 
least,  she  so  regarded  it,  and  she  decided  to  act  upon  it. 
She  saw  the  wind  was  blowing  the  rain  into  one  comer  of 
the  rockhouse.  She  rolled  herself  over  and  over  until 
she  lay  in  this  rain  blown  in  by  the  wind.  It  was  but  a 
short  time  until  the  raw-hide  thongs  with  which  she  was 

18  To  those  familiar  with  psychology  and  psychical  ijheuomcna  re- 
markable dreams  or  manifestatious  to  one  under  stress  of  nervous  ex- 
citement or  great  strain  or  disturbance  of  the  mental  faculties  are  not 
strange;  they  are  not  impossible,  improbable,  nor  even  unusual.  Volumes 
could  be  filled  with  authentic  instances  of  such  dreams  or  manifestations. 
Mrs.  Wiley  always  believed  she  was  assisted  by  this  dream  to  make  her 
escape.  She  believed  after  this  dream  that  there  were  white  people  in 
the  country  about  her.  The  route  by  which  the  settlement  could  be 
reached  was  unknown  to  her  and  had  not  been  seen  in  her  dream.  The 
young  man  led  her  straight  through  the  woods  to  a  high  mountain  which 
does  not  in  fact  exist.  But  she  saw  it  in  her  dream,  and  from  the  top  of 
it  she  saw  the  fort  in  a  settlement  of  her  own  people. 


bound  were  soaked  and  became  slippery  and  easily  re- 
moved. AVlien  free  she  bound  her  dog  to  a  large  stone  to 
prevent  his  following  her,  seized  a  tomahawk  and  a  scalp- 
ing knife,  and  descended  quickly  to  the  bed  of  Little  Mud- 
lick  Creek.  She  waded  that  stream  to  its  junction  with  the 
larger  stream,  which  she  waded  to  Big  Paint  Creek.  There 
she  remembered  that  she  had  no  well-defined  plan  of  ac- 
tion, but  after  a  little  time  spent  in  reflection  she  remem- 
bered that  she  had  seen  a  river  in  her  dream,  and  concluded 
that  she  might  reach  this  river  by  wading  continuously 
down  stream.  She  acted  upon  that  conclusion.  She 
found  it  difficult  to  wade  in  Big  Paint  Creek.  It  is  a 
deep,  swift  stream,  and  the  heavy  rain  quickly  raised  the 
small  streams  flowing  into  it,  and  they  carried  in  muddy 
water,  which  soon  made  it  impossible  for  her  to  determine 
the  depth.  She  was  often  carried  oiT  her  footing,  and 
more  than  once  was  in  danger  of  drowning. 

Big  Paint  Creek  makes  a  big  bend  which  she  was  com- 
pelled to  follow  around,  and  it  was  growing  dusk  when  she 
was  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rockhouse  branch.  At  the  mouth 
of  Jennie's  Creek  she  crossed  Paint  Creek.  She  waded 
up  Jennie's  Creek,  which  the  heavy  rain  had  put  out  of  its 
banks.  Wind  and  i-ain  continued  all  night.  When  she 
reached  the  forks  of  Jennie's  Creek  she  was  almost  ex- 
hausted, and  for  a  time  there  she  was  much  puzzled  as  to 
which  hiimdi  of  the  stream  she  should  follow.  Her  choice 
of  branches  was  right;  she  turned  to  the  left  and  followed 
the  Lick  Fork.  In  half  a  mile  she  was  again  compelled 
to  choose  between  two  branches  of  the  stream,  for  there 
the  M iddle  Fork  falls  into  the  Lick  Fork.  She  again  turn- 
ed to  the  h'ft,  and  again  her  choice  was  right.  She  followed 
the  l>ick  Foi-k  to  the  mouth  of  a  small  branch  coming  in 
I'loin  the  east.  Here  she  left  the  larger  stream  and  fol- 
lowed the  little  one  to  its  head,  where  she  crossed  through 
a  gaj)  to  tlu;  stream  now  known  as  the  Bear  Branch,  which 
iilie  descended  to  its  junction  with  Little  Paint  Creek. 


Continuing  down  the  latter  stream  she  stood  upon  the 
bank  of  the  Louisa  Kiver  as  the  dull  dawn  of  a  cloudy 
morning  appeared  in  the  east.  It  is  unnecessaiy  to  dwell 
here  upon  the  exhausted  condition  of  Mrs.  Wiley.  She 
had  waded  against  swift  currents  of  ovei'flowed  streams 
for  more  than  twelve  hours,  and  had  been  wading  for  as 
much  as  eighteen  hours.  She  dragged  lierself  u])  the  bank 
of  the  river  and  soon  came  O]:)posite  the  block) louse.  She 
saw  women  and  children  there,  but  no  man  was  in  sight. 
She  called  out  to  make  her  presence  known  and  for  assist- 
ance to  cross  the  river.  So  unexyiected  a  cry  alanned  the 
people  at  the  fort,  and  they  went  in  hurriedly  and  closed 
the  gate.'*' 

Here  was  a  wholly  unlooked-for  discouragement.  Mrs. 
Wiley  was  impatient  and  anxious,  fully  ex])ecting  to  be 
followed  by  the  savages.  Seeing  now  the  blockhouse,  she 
reasoned  that  the  Indians  knew  of  its  existence  and  would 
seek  her  in  that  direction.  She  was  fearful  that  they 
might  appear  at  any  minute.  She  continued  to  call  to  the 
people  in  the  fort,  calling  out  her  name  and  saying  that 

1''  Mrs.  Wiley  always  insisted  that  she  had  no  knowledge  of  the 
existence  of  the  blockhouse  when  she  left  the  rockhouse  at  the  falls  of 
Little  Mudlick  Creek.  She  had  seen  a  fort  beyond  a  river  in  her  dream 
the  night  before  her  escape,  and  she  supposed  that  by  descending  the 
creeks  she  would  reach  the  fiver.  Her  contention  is  upheld  by  the  facts 
developeil  in  the  flight.  It  was  almost  dark  when  she  was  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Rockhouse  branch,  and  at  the  mouth  of  .Jennie's  Creek  it  was  dark 
and  was  raining  very  hard.  She  said  something  told  her  she  must  cross 
to  Jennie's  Creek  and  follow  it.  To  do  this  was  to  abandon  her  original 
plan  of  following  down  stream  until  she  found  the  river.  At  the  mouth 
of  Jennie's  Creek  she  was  not  two  miles  from  the  Indian  camj).  If  she 
had  known  anything  of  the  route  u])  Jennie's  Creek  she  could  have  reached 
the  mouth  of  the  creek  in  less  than  an  hour  by  following  the  route  of  the 
present  highway  between  the  two  points,  and  the  amount  of  rain  falling 
would  have  enabled  her  to  wade  small  streams  all  the  way  and  conceal 
her  trail.  Her  ignorance  of  the  physical  features  of  the  surrounding 
country  saved  her;  for  it  was  afterward  discovered  that  when  the  Indians 
found  that  she  had  escaped  they  supposed  that  she  had  goiu*  tlirectly  to 
the  mouth  of  Jennie's  Creek,  and  they  followed  tiiat  route  in  their  first 
si-arcli  lor  lier.  Wliiie  it  was  yet  light  they  were  scduring  the  banks  of 
I'aint  Creek  ami  those  of  the  lower  courses  of  .leiinie's  Creek  seeking  some 


she  had  escaped  from  the  Indians,  whom  she  expected  to 
follow  her.  After  what  appeared  to  her  to  be  a  long  time 
an  old  man  came  out  of  the  fort.  She  recognized  him  at 
once  as  Henry  Skaggs,  an  old-time  friend  of  her  father. 
It  did  not  require  much  time  for  her  to  convince  him  that 
she  was  Jennie  Wiley,  and  that  she  stood  in  great  danger 
of  being  recaptured  by  the  Indians.  Skaggs  knew  the 
Cherokee  chief  well.  He  saw  that  no  time  was  to  be  lost 
in  getting  her  across  the  river.  He  told  Mrs.  Wiley  that 
the  men  of  the  fort,  except  himself,  had  gone  away  early 
in  the  morning  with  the  canoes.  He  said  they  would  not 
return  for  some  time,  and  that  he  would  be  compelled  to 
construct  a  raft  upon  which  to  bring  her  over.  He  advised 
her  to  endeavor  to  swim  across  should  the  Indians  appear, 
as  it  was  his  opinion  that  she  would  suffer  death  if  recap- 

A  dead  mulberry  tree  stood  on  the  bank  of  the  river  and 
Skaggs  and  the  women  went  vigorously  to  work  to  fell  it. 
It  was  tall  and  had  but  few  branches.  When  it  fell  it  very 
fortunately  broke  into  three  pieces  of  about  equal  length. 
These  logs  were  hastily  rolled  into  the  river  and  bound  to- 

sign  of  her,  and  finding  none  they  abandoned  the  idea  that  she  had  set 
out  for  the  blockhouse  over  that  route.  From  the  footprints  of  the  In- 
dians discovered  by  the  settlers  and  other  signs  left  by  the  Indians,  they 
sui)i)08Pd  that  the  savages  had  not  been  gone  an  hour  when  Mrs.  Wiley 
reached  the  mouth  of  Jennie's  Creek. 

Jennie's  Creek  was  given  its  name  in  her  honor  and  because  she  made 
her  escape  in  wading  several  miles  against  its  rapid  current.  Mrs.  Wiley 
said  that  it  was  perfectly  plain  to  her  that  she  must  take  the  left-hand 
branch,  as  she  was  traveling,  at  the  forks  of  Jennie's  Creek.  And  the 
Hame  thing  occurred  at  the  mouth  of  the  Middle  Fork.  And  it  wonld  seem 
a  miracle  that  any  one  could  find  the  mouth  of  the  small  branch  where 
Hho  turned  out  of  the  Lick  Fork.  It  must  be  remembered  that  it  was  pitch 
d;irk,  and  that  the  whole  country  was  covered  with  a  heavy  forest,  be- 
neath the  boughs  of  which  it  would  be  dark  on  even  a  starlight  night. 
Thf  darkness,  dense  as  it  was,  had  torrents  of  rain  to  augment  it.  The 
stnams  were  running  bank  full,  and  for  many  miles  she  pushed  against 
the  current.  Considered  from  any  point,  the  achievements  of  Mrs.  Wiley 
that  night  were  most  remarkable.  I  doubt  if  it  is  equaled  in  all  the  annals 
of  the  Border.  Her  adventures  have  in  them  all  the  requisites  for  a  ro- 
mance of  bordiT  life,  and  the  subject  is  worthy  the  ablest  pen. 

Mrs.  Wiley  and  lli'nry  Skaggs  crossing  the  Hiv<'r  on  ;i  llaU 


gether  with  long  grapevines  pulled  down  from  the  forest 
trees  where  they  grew  wild.  Placing  two  rifles  upon  the 
raft  Skaggs  pushed  out  into  the  river  which  was  full  to 
overflow,  and  which  was  caiTying  much  drift.  After  being 
carried  far  down  the  stream  Skaggs  made  a  landing.  Mrs. 
Wiley  stepped  upon  the  rude  raft  and  it  was  again  pushed 
into  the  stream.  When  in  mid-stream  the  raft  was  caught 
by  drift  and  nearly  pulled  to  pieces  but  by  hard  work  both 
raft  and  drift  were  brought  to  some  overhanging  trees 
standing  on  the  east  bank.  The  branches  of  these  trees 
were  seized  and  the  raft  brought  to  shore  about  half  a 
mile  below  the  blockhouse. 

When  Mrs.  Wiley  and  Skaggs  had  gone  up  the  river  to 
the  fort  and  were  about  to  enter  the  gate  Indian  yells 
broke  from  the  thickets  over  the  Louisa.  A  moment  later 
a  large  band  of  Indians  came  into  view,  among  them  the 
Cherokee  chief ;  and  with  them  was  Mrs,  Wiley 's  dog.  The 
Cherokee  chief  saw  Mrs.  Wiley  at  the  entrance  to  the  fort. 
He  called  out  to  her  to  know  why  she  had  left  him  after  he 
had  saved  her  life  and  paid  his  silver  for  her.  lie  insisted 
that  she  had  not  treated  him  as  she  should  have  done,  and 
closed  his  appeal  with  the  words,  *' honor,  Jennie,  honor!" 
She  did  not  reply  to  him.  Skaggs  fired  his  rifle  in  the 
direction  of  the  savages,  though  the  distance  was  too  great 
for  the  range  of  small  arms.  At  the  discharge  of  the  rifle 
the  Cherokee  turned  about,  and  with  a  defiant  gesture-" 
uttered  a  fearful  whoop,  in  which  he  was  joined  by  his 
warriors.  Seeing  that  Mrs.  Wiley  had  escaped  and  that  lie 
could  not  recapture  her,  the  Cherokee  chief  disappeared 
in  the  woods,  followed  by  his  savage  companions  and  Afrs. 
Wiley's  dog. 

The  report  of  the  gun  discharged  by  Henr>'  Skaggs 
brought  the  men  back  to  the  blockhouse.  Later  in  the  day, 
after  some  preparation,  the  men  crossed  the  river  and 
followed  the  trail  of  the  Indians  almost  to  Little  Mudliok 

20  Patted  his  buttocks 


Creek.  From  Mrs.  Wiley's  account  of  the  number  of  In- 
dians at  the  camp  the  hunters  believed  they  had  a  force  too 
small  to  attack  them,  so  they  returned  after  having  gone 
to  the  mouth  of  Jennie's  Creek.  It  was  not  improbable 
that  the  Indians  would  attack  the  fort  soon,  and  upon  the 
return  of  tlie  hunters  things  were  put  in  a  posture  of  de- 
fense. No  attack  was  made  upon  the  blockhouse,  but  the 
Indians  prowled  about  it  for  several  days,  and  they  were 
in  tlie  vicinity  for  some  weeks. 

Airs.  Wiley  found  friends  in  the  blockhouse.  Most  of 
the  settlers  were  well  known  to  her  in  Virginia.  She  was 
anxious  to  return  to  her  husband  and  relatives.  When 
the  winter  was  well  commenced  a  party  commanded  by 
Matthias  Ilarman  took  her  to  her  Virginia  settlements  and 
restored  her  to  her  husband  and  relatives.  On  the  way  the 
party  was  attacked  several  times,  but  succeeded  in  beating 
off  tlie  savages.-^  It  was  unusual  to  find  Indians  in  the 
woods  in  the  winter,  and  from  this  circumstance  it  was 
feared  that  they  would  prove  exceedingly  troublesome  to 
the  settlers  at  the  blockhouse  the  next  summer. 

Mrs.  Wiley  was  in  captivity  about  eleven  months.  Af- 
ter her  return  she  and  her  husband  lived  in  Virginia  about 
twelve  years;  they  then  moved  to  Kentucky,  settling  on 
the  Big  Sandy  River  just  above  the  mouth  of  Tom's  Creek, 
in  what  is  now  Johnson  County,  and  some  fifteen  miles 
from  the  blockhouse  and  ten  or  twelve  miles  from  the  old 
Indian  town  at  the  mouth  of  Little  Mudlick  Creek.  The 
Presbyterians  had  no  church  organization  in  that  part  of 
Kentucky,  and  she  and  hei-  husband  were  members  of  the 
i^>;i I  »t  i st  ( '1 1 u rcli.  Thomas  Wiley  died  where  he  first  settled 
ill  Kentucky  about  the  year  1810,  and  Mrs.  Wiley  re- 
mained a  widow  twenty-one  years,  dying  of  paralysis  in 

-'  Till'  attiicks  madp  l)v  the  Indians  upon  the  party  which  escorted  Mrs. 
Wiley  back  to  Virginia  .iiid  the  devices  practiced  to  evade  the  savages  would 
in  thoiMHelves  make  an  interesting  story.  It  often  seemed  as  though  they 
were  lost,  and  Mrs.  Wiley  had  to  bear  a  rifle  aiui  fight  with  the  others,  \vhich 
she  did  efTecfively  and  with  a  good  will. 


the  year  1831.  They  left  a  hirge  family  and  their  deseend- 
ants  live  now  in  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  and  are  numerous 
and  respectable. 

The  Indians  attacked  the  l)lockhouse  several  times  dur- 
ing the  summer  of  1788.  The  settlers  surrounded  it  with 
a  stockade.  The  Indians  maintained  something  of  a 
siege  which  lasted  for  about  three  weeks.  This  was  in 
September.  On  account  of  their  presence  all  the  time  no 
crops  could  be  raised  that  smnmer.  Several  of  them  were 
killed  by  the  settlers.  Some  of  the  settlers  became  dis- 
couraged, and  as  soon  as  cold  weather  enabled  them  to  do 
so  they  returned  to  the  Virginia  settlements.  Thus  weak- 
ened it  was  not  believed  that  the  fort  could  be  defended 
another  year.  The  settlers  all  returned  to  Virginia  during 
the  winter  of  1788-89.  The  Indians  immediately  destroy- 
ed the  blockhouse.  It  was  burned,  together  with  some 
cabins  which  the  settlers  had  erected  in  the  vicinity. 

In  the  winter  of  1789-90  some  of  these  settlers  returned 
to  the  blockhouse  site.  They  were  accompanied  by  other 
settlers,  a  majority  of  whom  were  from  Lee  and  Scott 
counties,  Virginia.  They  erected  a  second  blockhouse 
where  the  first  one  had  stood,  but  it  was  not  so  substan- 
tially built  as  was  the  first  one.  In  the  sunmier  of  1791 
many  new  settlers  came.  The  settlement  was  troul)led 
much  by  the  Indians  for  several  years,  but  it  was  never 
again  broken  up.  It  is  believed  that  iMatthias  Harman 
did  not  again  settle  ]iermanently  in  the  Blockhouse  Bot- 
tom, though  he  was  there  for  some  years.  He  died  in 
Tazewell  County,  Virginia.  Daniel  Harman  became  a 
permanent  settler  in  the  vicinity  of  the  first  settlement, 
and  his  descendants  in  the  Big  Sandy  Valley  are  many. 
They  are  industrious,  and  are  good  citizens.  Henry  Skaggs 
and  James  Skaggs  both  returned  to  Kentucky.  They 
lived  for  some  years  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Blockhouse  Bot- 
tom, but  when  times  were  settled  they  went  to  live  on  the 
head  waters  of  Big  Blaine  Creek.     Their  (h'scendants  live 


now  on  Big  Blaine  Creek,  the  Little  Sandy  River,  and  the 
Licking  River.  The  Leeks  came  with  the  second  settle- 
ment, and  their  descendants  are  yet  to  be  found  on  the 
Louisa  River.  The  same  can  be  said  of  the  Horns.  An 
account  of  the  families  which  came  with  the  settlers  in  the 
second  colony  will  be  furnished  at  some  time  in  the  future. 



I  have  believed  it  well  to  set  out  in  an  additional  chapter 
other  accounts  of  the  captivity  of  Mrs.  Wiley.  It  is  not 
necessary  to  make  any  comment  on  them,  for  when  they 
are  read  in  connection  with  my  account  as  written  from 
the  dictation  of  Adam  P.  Wiley  the  causes  for  any  differ- 
ences of  statement  will  readily  appear. 

The  adventures  of  Mrs.  Wiley  are  related  in  every 
household  in  the  Big  Sandy  Valley.  I  was  perfectly  famil- 
iar with  them  long  before  I  ever  saw  Mr.  Wiley.  They  are 
related  now  in  a  variety  of  forms,  and  like  all  traditionary 
accounts  of  an  important  event  after  the  lapse  of  more 
than  a  century  they  differ  somewhat  as  to  details.  The 
following  account  furnished  me  by  my  friend,  James  Hay- 
den  Van  Hoose,  of  Fayetteville,  Arkansas,  is  a  fair  state- 
ment of  the  tradition  as  it  is  briefly  related  in  these  days. 
Writing  me  under  date  of  August  4, 1895,  he  says : 

I  have  heard  my  grandmother  tell  the  story  as  she  re- 
ceived it  from  old  Jennie  Wiley  nearly  ninety  years  ago. 
Jennie  Wiley  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  in  Western 
Virginia,  and  on  a  day  in  the  fall  of  the  year  while  all  the 
men  folks  of  the  settlement  were  off  on  a  scout,  a  band  of 
Indians  came  in  and  murdered  and  plundered  the  ]ieople 
left  at  home.  All  her  children  were  killed  excei)t  her 
youngest,  then  about  15  months  old,  which  they  allowed 
her  to  carry  with  her  into  captivity.  They  took  her  down 
into  Kentucky  and  kept  her  with  them  until  in  the  early 
part  of  the  next  spring.  Another  babe  was  l)orn  which 
they  allowed  her  to  nurse  for  a  few  weeks,  but  becoming 
uneasy  about  some  news  brought  in  by  their  scouts,  they 
killed'both  of  her  babes  one  night  and  dried  tlioir  little 
scalps  by  the  fire  before  her  eyes.  She  saw  that  trouble 
was  brewing  and  resolved  to  make  an  effort  to  escape. 


After  they  were  asleep  slie  quietly  stole  away  from  the 
cam}),  traveling-  in  the  direction  she  thought  would  lead  to 
the  white  settlements.  All  night  she  traveled,  accompan- 
ied by  her  faithful  little  dog  who  had  followed  her  from 
her  home,  and  stayed  by  her  all  the  time  in  captivity. 

She  reached  the  mouth  of  this  little  creek  which  empties 
into  Paint  Creek,  and  she  followed  it  to  its  head.  During 
the  day  a  little  snow  fell,  and  for  fear  they  would  track  her 
in  the  snow  she  waded  in  the  water,  but  her  little  dog  would 
run  along  the  bank.  To  keep  them  from  finding  his  tracks 
in  the  snow,  she  called  him  to  her  in  the  water,  and  held 
him  under  until  he  was  drowned.  She  said  she  could  not 
keep  back  the  tears  while  drowning  him  as  she  thought  of 
how  faitfhul  he  had  been  to  her.  She  said  she  passed 
through  the  low  gap  now  known  as  "  Hager's  Gap,"  where 
my  father  afterward  built  his  house,  in  which  I  was  born 
()G  years  ago  and  a  ])ortion  of  which  yet  stands.  Travel- 
ing up  a  little  branch,  once  known  as  the  "  Stillhouse 
Branch,"  to  its  head,  she  reached  the  "  Limestone  Cliff," 
at  the  mouth  of  the  "  Limestone  Branch,"  late  at  night. 
She  rested  under  the  clifT  of  rocks  and  slept  a  few  hours 
until  daylight,  when  she  renewed  her  tramp  along  the 
river  bank,  until  she  reached  a  point  directly  opposite  the 
blockhouse,  or  rude  fort.  She  called  loudly  as  she  could 
for  some  one  to  come  over  after  her.  The  river  was  very 
high,  and  some  of  the  women  came  down  to  the  bank.  She 
called  to  them  to  send  some  one  over  after  her,  as  she 
knew  the  Indians  were  after  her ;  but  they  answered  her 
by  saying  there  was  no  canoe  about  the  fort,  and  that  the 
men  were  all  gone  after  Indians  on  a  scout,  and  only  one 
old  man  left  with  the  women  and  little  children,  and  he 
was  80  years  old,  and  feeble.  She  told  them  to  get  some 
dry  logs  and  ])in  them  together  and  make  a  raft,  but  they 
told  her  llici-e  was  not  any  auger  about  the  place.  Then 
siie  said  tie  the  logs  together  with  ropes.  But  there  was 
no  ro])e.  'i'hen  she  said  "  get  a  grape  vine  "  and  tie  the 
logs  together  with  that. 

The  old  man  and  women  got  three  dry  ])oplar  logs  and 
fa.stened  them  together  with  grape  vines,  and  got  a  board 
for  a  j)addle.  The  old  nuin  got  on  the  raft  and  shoved  it 
from  the  shore,  lie  finally  reached  the  side  where  she 
was  so  Miixiously  waiting,  and  she  got  on  the  other  end  of 

The  escape  of  Mrs.  Wiley  from  the  Indiiiiis  ;it  tln'  Falls  of 
Little  Mudliek  Creek 


the  raft  and  shoved  it  from  the  shore.  Tlie  ohl  man  be^^^au 
paddling  for  the  shore  from  whence  lie  liad  eome.  The 
strong  current  carried  tliem  down  the  river  some  distance, 
and  finally  the  vines  began  to  come  loose.  The  raft  began 
to  spread  apart.  The  old  man  ceased  ))addling  and  fell 
upon  his  knees  and  began  to  ])ray,  l)ut  Mrs.  Wih^y  Jiad  more 
faith  in  "  works  "  than  in  }»rayei-.  She  s<mz(m1  the  paddle 
out  of  his  hands,  and  while  he  prayed  she  paddled,  and 
succeeded  in  ])i"0])elling  the  raft  in  under  some  swinging 
maple  limbs  that  overhung  the  water.  The  old  man 
grabbed  hold  of  the  limbs  and  pulled  the  raft  ashoie ;  they 
both  reached  dry  land  in  safety.  And  none  too  soon, 
either;  for  just  as  they  reached  the  top  of  the  bank,  three 
Indians  came  to  the  opposite  shore,  on  her  trail,  and  called 
out  in  a  loud  voice,  '^  Whoopee,  my  pretty  Jinnie !  "  But 
'*  Jinnie  "  was  all  right,  for  she  had  reached  the  fort,  and 
the  Indians  not  knowing  that  the  men  were  all  gone,  were 
afraid  to  venture  over. 

The  following  is  the  account  of  the  captivity  of  Mrs. 
Wiley  written  by  Rev.  Zephaniah  Meek,  editor  and  pro- 
prietor of  The  Central  Methodist,  of  Catlettsburg,  Ken- 
tucky, for  Dr.  Ely's  The  Big  Sandy  Valley.  With  the 
exception  of  the  date  this  brief  sketch  is  singularly  ac- 
curate. Mr.  Meek  was  familiar  with  the  stor>'  of  Mrs. 
Wiley  almost  all  his  life.  I  believe  he  was  born  near  the 
Wiley  homestead  on  the  Big  Sandy  River. 

Jenny  Wiley 

The  most  romantic  histoiy  in  the  early  settlement  of 
the  Big  Sandy  Valley  is  that  of  Jenny  Wiley.  This  histt)ry 
we  proceed  to  give  from  the  most  reliable  sources  at  our 
command,  drawing  our  facts  mainly  from  TTardesty's 
*'  Historical  and  Biograi)hical  Encyclopedia." 

There  is  hardly  a  man  or  woman  in  Eastern  Kciihicky 
who  is  not  familiar  with  the  story  of  the  life  of  tiiis  re- 
markable woman.  The  facts  of  her  ca]iture  by  the  In- 
dians, escape  from  them,  and  return  to  her  home,  have 
been  handed  down  from  parent  to  child,  and  they  are  well 
remembered.  Her  maiden  name  was  Jenny  Sellards.  She 
married  Thomas  Wilev,  a  native  of  Trelanrl,  who  h:id  em- 


igrated  and  settled  on  Walker's  Creek,  in  Wythe,  now 
Tazewell  County,  Va.,  where  they  were  living  at  the  time 
of  the  capture  by  the  Indians.  She  had  a  sister  living  near 
by,  the  wife  of  John  Borders,  who  was  the  father  of  the 
Rev.  John  Borders,  a  noted  Baptist  preacher,  Hezekiah 
Borders,  Judge  Archibald  Borders,  and  several  daughters. 
Several  families  named  Haniion  lived  in  the  same  neigh- 
borhood, some  of  whom  were  noted  Indian  scouts. 

At  the  time  of  the  capture  of  Jenny,  Thomas  Wiley,  her 
husband,  was  out  in  the  woods  digging  ginseng.  This  was 
in  the  year  1790.  The  destruction  of  the  Wiley  family,  as 
hereafter  recorded,  was  a  result  of  a  mistake  on  the  part 
of  the  savages.  Some  time  previously,  in  an  engagement 
with  a  party  of  Cherokees,  one  of  the  Harmons  had  shot 
and  killed  two  or  three  of  their  number,  and  a  party  of  five 
returned  to  seek  vengeance  on  the  Harmons,  but  ignorant 
of  the  location  of  their  cabin,  fell  upon  Wiley's  instead. 

John  Borders  warned  Mrs.  Wiley  that  he  feared  Indians 
were  in  the  neighborhood,  and  urged  her  to  go  to  his  house 
and  remain  until  Wiley's  return,  but  as  she  had  a  piece  of 
cloth  in  the  loom,  she  said  she  would  finish  it  and  then  go. 
The  delay  on  the  part  of  Mrs.  Wiley  was  a  fatal  one. 
Darkness  came  on,  and  with  it  came  the  attack  upon  the 
defenseless  family.  The  Indians  rushed  into  the  house, 
nnd  after  tomahawking  and  scalping  a  younger  brother 
and  three  of  the  children,  and  taking  Mrs.  Wiley,  her  in- 
fant (a  year  and  a  half  old),  and  Mr.  Wiley's  hunting 
dog,  started  towards  the  Ohio  River.  At  the  time  the  In- 
dian trail  led  down  what  is  now  known  as  Jennie's  Creek, 
and  along  it  they  proceeded  until  they  reached  the  mouth 
of  that  stream,  and  then  down  Tug  and  Big  Sandy  rivers 
to  the  Ohio. 

No  sooner  had  the  news  of  the  horrid  butchery  spread 
among  the  inhabitants  of  the  Walker's  Creek  settlement 
than  a  party,  among  whom  were  Lazrus  Damron  and 
Matthias  Harmon,  started  in  ])ursuit.  They  followed  on 
for  several  days,  ])ut  failing  to  come  up  with  the  pei-pe- 
trators  of  tlie  terrible  outrage,  the  pursuit  was  abandoned, 
and  all  returned  to  their  homes.  The  Indians  expected 
that  they  would  be  followed,  and  the  infant  of  Mrs.  Wiley 
])r()viiig  an  incumbrance  to  their  flight,  they  dashed  out  its 
bniiiis  against  a  beech  tree  when  a  sliort  distance  below 


where  Mr.  William  C.  Crum  now  resides,  and  two  miles 
from  Jennie's  Creek.  This  tree  was  standing  and  well 
known  to  the  inhabitants  of  this  section  during  the  first 
quarter  of  the  present  century. 

When  the  savages,  with  their  captive,  reached  the  Ohio, 
it  was  very  much  swollen ;  with  a  shout  of  0-high-o,  they 
turned  down  that  stream,  and  continued  their  journey  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Little  Sandy.  Up  that  stream  they  went 
to  the  mouth  of  Dry  Fork,  and  up  the  same  to  its  head, 
when  they  crossed  the  dividing  ridge  and  proceeded  down 
what  is  now  called  Cherokee  Fork  of  Big  Blaine  Creek,  to 
a  point  within  two  miles  of  its  mouth,  where  they  halted  and 
took  shelter  between  a  ledge  of  rocks.  Here  they  remained 
for  several  months,  and  during  the  time  Mrs.  Wiley  was 
delivered  of  a  child.  At  this  time  the  Indians  were  very 
kind  to  her;  but  when  the  child  was  three  weeks  old  they 
decided  to  test  him,  to  see  whether  he  would  make  a  brave 
warrior.  Having  tied  him  to  a  flat  piece  of  wood  they 
slipped  him  into  the  water  to  see  if  he  would  cry.  He 
screamed  furiously,  and  they  took  him  by  the  heels  and 
dashed  his  brains  out  against  an  oak  tree. 

When  they  left  this  encampment  they  ])roceeded  down 
to  the  mouth  of  Cherokee  Creek,  then  up  Big  Blaine  to  the 
mouth  of  Hood's  Fork,  thence  up  that  stream  to  its  source ; 
from  here  they  crossed  over  the  dividing  ridge  to  the 
waters  of  Mud  Lick,  and  down  the  same  to  its  mouth, 
where  they  once  more  formed  an  encampment. 

About  this  time  several  settlements  were  made  on  the 
headwaters  of  the  Big  Sandy,  and  the  Indians  decided  to 
kill  their  captive,  and  accordingly  prepared  for  the  execu- 
tion ;  but  just  when  the  awful  hour  was  come,  an  old  Chero- 
kee chief,  who  in  the  meantime  had  joined  the  party,  pro- 
posed to  buy  her  from  the  others  on  condition  tluit  she 
would  teach  his  squaws  to  make  cloth  like  the  gown  she 
wore.  Thus  was  her  life  saved,  but  she  was  reduced  to  the 
most  abject  slavery,  and  was  made  to  carr>"  water,  wood, 
and  build  fires.  For  some  time  they  bound  her  when  they 
were  out  hunting ;  but  as  time  wore  away  they  relaxed  their 
vigilance,  and  at  last  permitted  her  to  remain  unbound. 

On  one  occasion,  when  all  were  out  from  camp,  they 
were  belated,  and  at  nightfall  did  not  return,  and  Mrs. 
Wilev  now  resolved  to  earn-  into  eifect  a  long-cherished 


object,  that  of  making  her  escape  and  returning  to  her 
friends.  The  rain  was  falling  fast,  and  the  night  was  in- 
tensely dark,  but  she  glided  away  from  the  camp-fire  and 
set  out  on  her  lonely  and  perilous  journey.  Her  dog,  the 
same  that  had  followed  the  party  through  all  their  wan- 
derings, started  to  follow  her,  but  she  drove  him  back,  lest 
by  his  barking  he  might  betray  her  into  the  hands  of  her 
pursuers.  She  followed  the  course  of  Mud  Lick  Creek  to 
its  mouth,  and  then  crossing  Main  Paint  Creek,  journeyed 
up  a  stream  (ever  since  known  as  Jennie's  Creek)  a  dis- 
tance of  some  miles,  thence  over  a  ridge  and  down  a 
stream,  now  called  Little  Paint  Creek,  which  empties  into 
the  Levisa  Fork  of  Big  Sandy  River.  When  she  reached 
its  mouth  it  was  day-dawn,  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river,  a  short  distance  below  the  mouth  of  John's  Creek, 
she  could  hear  and  see  men  at  work  erecting  a  block-house. 
To  them  she  called,  and  informed  them  that  she  was  a  cap- 
tive escai)ing  from  the  Indians,  and  urged  them  to  hasten 
to  her  rescue,  as  she  believed  her  pursuers  to  be  close  upon 
her.  The  men  had  no  boat,  but  hastily  rolling  some  logs 
into  the  river  and  lashing  them  together  with  grape-vines, 
they  pushed  over  the  stream  and  carried  her  back  with 
them.  As  they  were  ascending  the  bank,  the  old  chief  who 
had  claimed  Jenny  as  his  property,  preceded  by  the  dog, 
appeared  upon  the  opposite  bank,  and  striking  his  hands 
upon  his  breast,  exclaimed  in  broken  English,  ''Honor, 
Jenny,  honor!  "  and  then  disappeared  in  the  forest. 

That  was  the  last  she  ever  saw  of  the  old  chief  or  her 
dog.  She  remained  here  a  day  or  two  to  rest  from  her 
fatigue,  and  then  with  a  guide  made  her  way  back  to  her 
home,  having  been  in  captivity  more  than  eleven  months. 
Here  she  rejoined  her  husband,  who  had  long  supposed 
her  dead,  and  together,  nine  years  after  —  in  the  year 
1800  —  they  abandoned  their  home  in  the  Old  Dominion, 
and  found  another  near  the  mouth  of  Tom's  Creek,  on  the 
))anks  of  the  Levisa  Fork  of  Big  Sandy.  Here  her  hus- 
l)aii(l  died  in  the  year  1810.  She  survived  him  twenty-one 
years,  and  died  of  paralysis  in  the  year  1831. 

The  Indians  had  killed  her  brother  and  five  of  her  chil- 
•  Ircii,  hut  after  her  return  from  captivity  five  others  were 
l»<)ni,  namely :  Ilezekiah,  Jane,  Sally,  Adam,  and  William. 

Iff'zcki.'ih  married  Miss  Christine  Nelson,  of  George's 

Mi's.  \ViI('>'  oil  llic  I\i\cr-lt;mk  ojjpositc  tlic  Ulocklioiisc  ciillinf,'  tor  lidp 


Creek,  Kentucky,  aud  settled  on  Twelve  Pole  Creek,  where 
he  lived  for  many  years ;  he  died  in  1832,  [  1882  ],  while  on  a 
visit  to  friends  in  Kentucky.  Jane  married  Richard 
Williamson,  who  also  settled  on  Twelve  Pole.  Sally  first 
married  Christian  Yost,  of  Kentucky,  and  after  hisdcath 
was  united  in  marriage  with  Samuel  Murray.  Slie  died 
March  10,  1871.  William  raised  a  large  family,  and  after 
the  sale  of  the  Wiley  fann  moved  to  Tom's  Creek,  ahout 
two  miles  from  the  mouth,  where  he  lived  until  his  death. 

Of  the  children  of  Jenny  Wiley,  Adam  P.  was  the  most 
noted.  In  physique  he  was  scarcely  excelled  by  any  man 
in  the  Sandy  Valley.  Tall,  straight  as  an  arrow,  brown  of 
skin,  slow  of  movement  and  speech,  he  was  an  attractive 
figure  to  look  upon.  He  was  known  far  and  wide  as 
^ '  Vard  ' '  Wiley,  sometimes  called  * '  Adam  Pre  Vard. ' ' 
Why  thus  designated  the  writer  is  unable  to  say.*  In  his 
early  life  ''  Vard  "  was  a  great  fiddler,  and  carried  his 
violin  far  and  near,  to  make  music  for  the  young  people  to 
dance  by.  But  uniting  himself  with  the  Baptist  Church, 
he  for  a  time  gave  up  the  fiddle  and  went  to  preaching. 
His  sermons  were,  like  himself,  very  long,  and  he  was  very 
zealous  and  earnest.  After  some  years  in  the  ministry  — 
the  number  we  do  not  remember  —  he  gave  up  his  calling, 
and  was  often  seen  making  his  old  violin  ring  out  charm- 
ing music  for  the  young  people  at  the  log-rolling,  house- 
raising,  or  corn-husking.  He  lived  to  a  ripe  old  age,  and 
died  only  a  few  years  ago,  at  his  home  in  Johnson  County. 
Before  his  death  he  visited  the  vrriter,  for  the  purpose  of 
having  him  write  out  the  life  of  his  mother  as  he  would  de- 
tail it  from  memory,  but  our  business  engagements  were 
such  that  it  was  impossible  to  comply  with  his  request. 

The  Wiley  family,  descendants  of  Jenny,  are  quite  nu- 
merous in  Johnson ;  they  are  a  hard  working  set  of  men, 
and  retain  in  their  memory  the  heroic  life  of  Jenny  Wiley 
as  a  heritage  of  priceless  value. 

The  farm  upon  which  Mr.  Wiley  settled,  just  below  the 
mouth  of  Tom's  Creek,  was  known  to  all  the  old  peoi)le, 
far  and  near,  as  the  ''  Wiley  Farm."  About  forty  years 
ago  it  was  sold  to  James  Nibert,  who  lived  upon  it  until 

*  His  name  was  Adam  Prevard  Wiley.  The  name  Adam  was  for  .\dam 
Harman  who  settled  at  Draper's  Meadows  in  1748.  The  SellardB  and 
Harman    families   intermarried. —  B'ilHam   E.    ConnelU}i. 


some  ten  years  ago,  when  he  sold  it  to  Samuel  Spears,  who 
is  the  present  owner  and  occupant. 

As  the  writer  was  born  and  reared  almost  in  sight  of  the 
•'  AViley  Farm,"  he  is  perfectly  familiar  with  all  the  lead- 
ing facts  in  the  life  of  Jenny  Wiley,  during  her  stay  with 
the  Indians,  and  after  her  escape. 

AMiile  they  were  camping  on  Mud  Lick,  some  six  miles 
above  where  Paintsville  now  stands,  she  said  they  fre- 
([uently  ran  short  of  lead,  and  when  they  wanted  to  re- 
plenish their  stock  they  had  no  trouble  to  do  so,  and  in  a 
very  short  time.  They  would  go  out  in  the  forenoon,  and 
after  three  or  four  hours'  absence  return  with  something 
which  looked  like  stones.  Then  they  would  build  a  large 
fire  out  of  logs,  on  sidling  ground,  throw  the  ore  on,  and  it 
would  melt  and  run  off  into  trenches  prepared  for  it; 
afterwards,  as  needed,  it  was  moulded  into  bullets.  But, 
notwithstanding  the  ease  with  which  the  Indians  procured 
their  lead,  the  whites  have  never  been  able  to  find  the 
mines  from  which  it  was  taken.  Years  have  been  spent 
in  its  search,  and  long  pilgrimages  have  been  made,  by 
those  claiming  to  be  able  to  point  out  the  place,  but  thus 
far  to  no  purpose. 

Were  we  to  repeat  all  the  legends  that  have  been  handed 
down  from  the  days  of  Jenny  Wiley,  they  would  seem  too 
incredible  for  belief  in  this  age,  when  romance  and  hard- 
ships are  not  so  intimately  associated  as  they  were  then. 
So,  in  the  preparation  of  this  chapter  we  have  confined 
ourselves  to  facts,  leaving  out  the  fanciful,  which  the  im- 
agination of  the  reader  can  supply. 

That  there  are  vast  lead  mines  in  the  valley  of  Paint 
Creek,  ])erhaps  on  Mud  Lick,  there  is  little  room  to  doubt. 
That  they  have  never  been  found,  in  view  of  the  universal 
belief  of  their  existence,  is  likely  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
peo}tle  in  that  section  do  not  know  lead  ore  when  they  see 
it.  The  stoiy  of  Jenny  Wiley  was  abundantly  confirmed 
by  Indians  friendly  to  the  whites,  in  later  days,  but  they 
would  give  no  infonnation  as  to  the  location.  We  are 
sorry  wo  can  not  toll  our  readers  where  to  find  these  mines ! 

1  iiiscit  hcio  Iho  account  written  by  H.  Clay  Kagland, 
Esq.,  editor  and  ])ro])rietor  of  the  Logan  County  (West 
Virginia)   lunmcr.     Mr.  Kagland  wrote  a  history  of  his 


county  in  installments,  which  he  published  in  his  paper. 
While  there  are  some  errors  in  it,  the  history  is  very  valu- 
able, and  in  the  publication  of  it  Mr.  Ragland  did  his 
country  a  great  service.  I  recognized  its  value  as  soon  as 
I  saw  the  first  chapter,  and  procured  it  all;  I  have  it 
pasted  in  a  scrap  book  in  consecutive  order.  It  is  one  of 
the  best  annals  of  the  valley  yet  written.  The  portion 
given  here  is  chapter  five  in  the  series  as  published  in  the 

History  of  Logan  County 


H.  Clay  Ragland 

Chapter  V 

As  eariy  as  1777  Henry  Hai-man,  a  native  of  Prussia, 
with  his  sons,  Henry,  George  and  Mathias,  and  Absalom 
Lusk,  made  a  settlement  in  what  is  now  known  as  Ab's 
Valley,  in  what  is  now  Tazewell  County.  The  place  se- 
lected by  them  had  formerly  been  occupied  by  Indian 
lodges,  and  a  portion  of  the  land  was  ready  for  cultivation. 
They  were  soon  joined  in  their  new  settlement  by  John 
Draper,  James  Moore,  James  Evans,  Samuel  Wiley  and 
George  Maxwell,  with  their  families,  and  thus  strength- 
ened they  felt  themselves  in  a  manner  secure  from  Indian 
raids,  and  their  horses  and  cattle  were  allowed  to  run  at 
large  in  the  fertile  valley.  For  awhile  all  went  well.  The 
crops  were  planted  and  the  wild  game  so  abundant  in  the 
valley  was  hunted,  and  peace  and  plenty  was  promised. 
Indian  eyes,  however,  watched  from  the  wooded  ridge  to 
the  west,  and  on  a  bright  morning  in  the  early  summer  of 
1778,  Mathias  Hanuan  and  John  Draper  were  out  hunting 
about  a  mile  from  the  settlement,  when,  becoming  sep- 
arated, young  Harman  shot  a  deer  and  then  commenced 
to  reload  his  rifle.  Before  he  had  finished  ho  was  seized 
from  behind  by  a  stalwart  Indian,  and  on  looking  up  he 
saw  several  other  Indians  in  a  few  feet  of  him,  and  he  gave 
up  without  a  struggle.  The  whoop  which  the  Indians 
raised  at  his  capture  notified  Draper  of  tlie  fact  and  he 
hurried  to  the  settlement  with  the  news.  IToniy  Uannan 
and  his  sons  Heniy  and  George  at  once  seized  their  arms, 


and  with  Draper  pursued  rapidly  after  the  Indians  whom 
they  overtook,  on  what  is  now  known  as  Harman's  branch, 
in  McDowell  County.  Harman  and  his  companions  at 
once  opened  fire  on  the  Indians,  and  when  the  fight  was 
over  young  Harman  was  a  free  man,  and  five  of  the  In- 
dians were  dead  on  the  field  while  the  others  had  saved 
themselves  by  flight.  None  of  the  whites  were  hurt  ex- 
cept Henry  Harman,  Sr.,  who  was  covered  with  wounds, 
six  arrowheads  being  broken  off  in  his  flesh ;  not  extracted 
until  he  had  been  carried  back  to  his  home  by  his  boys. 
Draper  is  said  to  have  deserted  during  the  fight,  and  on 
reaching  the  settlement  had  reported  that  Harman  and  all 
of  his  sons  were  killed.  Eevenge  is  one  of  the  strongest 
characteristics  of  the  Indian,  as  well  as  all  other  uncivil- 
ized races,  and  doubtless  the  Indians  who  escaped  with 
their  lives  from  the  fight  of  Harman's  branch,  dreamed 
of  being  revenged  upon  the  little  settlement  of  Ab's  Val- 
ley ;  yet  bided  their  time  until  the  little  settlement  should 
again  feel  themselves  secure  from  attack. 

The  crops  for  1779  had  been  scarcely  planted  and  young 
Mathias  Harman  was  busy  raising  a  company  of  Rangers 
to  join  the  patriots  in  the  Carolinas,  when  in  the  early 
part  of  the  spring  a  party  of  some  thirty  Indians  dropped, 
as  if  from  the  clouds,  upon  the  little  settlement,  capturing 
first  James  Moore,  who  had  gone  to  the  pasture  to  look 
after  his  horses,  and  with  a  savage  whoop,  bursting  into 
the  houses,  murdering  the  Wiley,  Moore  and  Maxwell 
families,  and  capturing  George  Maxwell  and  Jennie  Wiley, 
the  wife  of  Samuel  Wiley,  and  daughter  of  James  Evans. 
The  alann  was  soon  given,  and  Captain  Mathias  Harman, 
with  about  forty  men  of  the  company  which  he  had  been 
raising,  was  soon  in  the  saddle  and  ready  for  pursuit. 
General  Preston,  who  had  about  one  hundred  men  in  his 
command  was  notified,  and  made  a  junction  with  Harman 
the  next  day  at  or  near  the  present  site  of  W^elch.  With 
tliis  force  they  pushed  down  the  Tug  River  to  its  junction 
with  Levisa,  and  then  down  the  Big  Sandy  as  rapidly  as 
possible,  keeping  their  scouts  in  advance  of  them,  but 
they  failed  to  overtake  the  Indians;  in  fact  they  lost  all 
sign  of  their  trail  after  passing  the  mouth  of  Jennie's 
(^reek,  on  Tug  River.  When  in  al)out  eight  miles  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Big  Sandy,  at  what  is  now  White's  Creek, 

Mrs.  Wiley  at  the  mouth  of  Little  Paint  Creek  (Kast  Point 
escape  from  tlie  Indians 

in  lit'r 


the  scouts  reported  a  large  force  of  ludians,  ostiinatcd  at 
a  thousand  warriors,  in  front  of  them,  and  rapidly  ad- 
vancing up  the  river.  The  men  iiad  not  .stop})ed  to  liuut 
on  the  march,  and  they  were  entirely  out  of  ])roviHions, 
and  the  forced  march  which  they  had  made  had  jaded  both 
horses  and  men.  Less  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  in 
a  wilderness,  more  than  two  hundred  miles  from  a  settle- 
ment, fronted  by  a  wily  and  savage  foe,  numbering  more 
than  five  to  one,  and  acquainted  with  eveiy  mountain  pass 
in  the  country,  by  which  a  party  could  have  been  thrown 
in  their  front  and  an  ambuscade  formed,  was  indeed  a 
critical  position.  To  fight  was  certain  death  and  even 
retreat  promised  but  little  else.  Nothing  else,  however, 
remained  to  be  done,  and  posting  his  most  ex]ierienced 
men  in  the  rear  of  his  column.  Gen.  Preston  and  his  l)rave 
men,  chagrined  at  their  failure  in  recapturing  the  prison- 
ers who  had  been  taken  from  Ab's  Valley,  set  out  on  their 
weary  retreat  up  the  river.  In  the  meantime  a  hea\'y  rain 
had  commenced,  and  the  mountain  streams  were  in  ])laces 
overflowing  their  banks,  making  fording  at  times  difficult, 
while  the  soft  and  yielding  earth  doubled  the  labor  of  the 
jaded  steeds. 

The  weary  march  was  kept  up  during  the  night,  but 
without  incident.  The  next  morning  both  deer  and  buffalo 
were  in  sight,  but  they  were  afraid  to  fire  a  gun  lest  their 
Indian  pursuers  might  locate  them  and  hurry  forward,  or 
worse  still,  send  a  column  by  some  nearer  route  to  inter- 
cept them.  Arriving  at  the  mouth  of  Marrowbone,  they 
found  the  carcass  of  a  buffalo,  which  had  been  left  by  the 
Indians  on  their  retreat  down  the  river,  and  tlie  bones  with 
what  flesh  had  been  left  upon  them,  were  divide<l  among 
the  men.  A  short  distance  above  Marrowbone  they  came 
upon  a  gas  spring  which  had  been  lighted.  Hero  they 
paused  for  the  purpose  of  resting  their  horses,  and  of 
roasting,  as  best  they  could,  the  meat  and  bones  which  they 
had  found  at  the  mouth  of  Marrowbone.  Some  of  the  men 
to  satisfy  their  hunger,  cut  the  tugs  from  their  saddles 
and  roasted  them  over  the  s])ring.  After  a  short  rest  the 
gallant  little  band  again  took  up  their  line  of  march  up 
the  river.  Arriving  at  the  month  of  Piiroon.  they  found 
that  Charles  Lewis,  who  had  been  taken  si(*k  on  their 
march  down  the  river,  and  left  at  that  ])lace  in  cliarge  of 
two  companions,  had  died.    Tliey  liastily  dng  a  grave  and 


buried  him,  but  just  as  the  last  sad  rites  were  being  com- 
pleted, scouts  reported  the  Indian  column  but  a  short  dis- 
tance below.  Examining  the  creek,  and  finding  it  out  of 
its  banks  and  covered  with  driftwood  and  debris,  they 
concluded  that  it  was  dangerous  to  attempt  to  cross  it  in 
the  face  of  the  foe,  and  leaving  the  old  trail,  they  took  up 
their  line  of  march  up  the  northeastern  bank  of  the  creek, 
hoping  to  find  further  up  the  stream  where  it  could  be 
forded,  a  gap  in  the  mountain  by  which  they  could  return 
to  the  old  trail  on  the  river.  Arriving  at  what  is  now  the 
mouth  of  Hell  Creek,  they  went  up  that  stream,  thinking 
it  would  lead  them  to  the  old  trail,  but  after  proceeding 
about  three  miles  they  found  in  front  of  them  an  impass- 
ible barrier  of  stone  and  they  were  forced  to  retrace  their 
steps  to  Pigeon,  expecting  to  encounter  there  the  whole 
force  of  the  Indians.  Every  gun  was  examined  and  a 
fresh  charge  of  powder  put  in  every  pan  of  their  flint-lock 
rifles.  On  reaching  Pigeon  they  were  agreeably  surprised 
in  meeting  their  scouts  to  learn  that  the  Indians  had  gone 
into  camp  at  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  throwing  only  a  few 
scouts  across  the  creek  on  the  old  trail. 

Gen.  Preston  then  determined  to  follow  the  creek  to  its 
head,  intending  to  rest  for  awhile  wherever  game  could  be 
found.  A  short  distance  up  the  creek  and  at  the  mouth  of 
a  small  creek  flowing  into  Pigeon  from  the  eastward,  sev- 
eral! elks  were  seen,  which  were  speedily  brought  down  by 
the  trusty  rifles,  and  the  party  went  into  camp,  picketing 
their  horses  so  they  could  feed  on  the  wild  grass  which  was 
abundant.  There  were  no  signs  of  Indians  during  the 
afternoon  or  night,  and  after  partaking  of  a  hasty  meal 
the  next  morning  the  command  slowly  resumed  its  march 
up  the  creek.  A  hunting  party  under  charge  of  Ben  Cole 
was  sent  on  in  advance  for  the  purpose  of  hunting  game 
and  fixing  up  a  camp  for  the  next  night.  This  little  party 
])ushed  to  the  front,  leaving  a  trail  by  which  the  main  col- 
umn could  be  guided,  never  leaving  the  creek  until  they 
came  to  its  head.  Here  they  crossed  over  the  mountain 
and  wended  their  way  down  a  small  stream  until  they 
came  to  what  is  now  known  as  the  ''  Forks  of  Ben  Creek," 
where  they  found  both  game  and  grass  abundant,  and 
Coh',  selecting  it  as  the  cam]ung  ground  for  the  night, 
made  ])i('));n;itions  for  the  command,  sending  a  part  of 

Tlio  TndiMns  on  the  River-bank  opposite  the  l-5Ioekhouse 
Wih'y  liad  been  taken  from  this  point  on  the 
Raft  a  few  minutes  before 


his  men  out  to  kill  game.  Gen.  Preston  on  arriving  went 
into  camp,  and  next  morning,  having  heard  nothing  fur- 
ther of  the  Indian  force,  detennined  to  give  his  men  and 
horses  a  much-needed  rest.  It  was  to  him  and  his  com- 
mand a  new  country,  and  scouts  were  sent  out  in  every 
direction  for  the  purpose  of  finding  out  what  they  could  of 
the  surrounding  country,  as  well  as  their  distance  from 
the  old  trail  over  which  they  had  traveled.  It  was  soon 
ascertained  that  they  were  within  a  mile  of  the  old  trail 
that  led  up  the  Tug  River,  and  that  they  were  really 
camped  on  another  trail  that  led  from  the  river  up  the 
creek.  Scouts  following  this  latter  trail  found  that  it 
crossed  over  a  gap  of  a  mountain  to  another  creek  which 
flowed  into  the  Guyandotte  Eiver,  and  now  known  as  Gil- 
bert's Creek. 

After  resting  a  few  days.  Gen.  Preston  sent  the  com- 
mand of  Capt.  Harman  back  to  the  settlements,  and 
crossed  with  his  command  to  the  Guyandotte  River,  where, 
after  reconnoitering  the  country  as  far  down  as  the  mouth 
of  Buffalo  Creek,  and  then  after  resting  a  few  days  and 
feasting  on  buffalo  which  were  found  in  large  herds,  he 
took  up  his  line  of  march  for  the  settlements,  passing  up 
Huff's  Creek  by  the  grave  of  Peter  Huff,  which  being  rec- 
ognized by  some  of  the  men,  who  were  with  Huff  when  he 
was  killed,  the  command  paused  and  refilled  the  sunken 
grave  with  fresh  earth  and  marched  back  to  the  settle- 
ments on  New  River  by  the  same  route  over  which  Capt. 
Hull  had  returned  two  years  before. 

Mr.  Rag] and  places  the  date  of  the  captivity  of  Mrs. 
Wiley  in  1779.  It  is  evident  that  this  date  is  much  too 
early ;  it  is  the  year  given  me  by  Adam  P.  Wiley  as  that  in 
which  his  parents  were  united  in  marriage.  At  the  time 
of  the  destruction  of  their  family  they  had  four  children. 
Mr.  Ragland  has  the  events  and  dates  mixed  in  the  treat- 
ment of  this  and  other  matters  in  relation  to  the  history  of 
the  Big  Sandy  Valley.  He  fixes  the  number  of  Indians  in 
the  party  at  "about  thirty"  or  ''some  thirty."  He 
makes  the  pursuing  party  consist  of  the  expedition  com- 
manded by  General  Andrew  Lewis,  and  which  was  sent 
out  in  Pebruar}%  1756,  and  which  is  known  in  histor>'  as 


the  * '  Sandy  Creek  Voyage. ' '  He  has  the  expedition  com- 
manded by  General  William  Preston  and  Captain  Matthi- 
as Harman. 

EN     DIEU     EST  TOUT 

Arms  Of  The.  Connelly  Family 



The  Connelly  Family,  we  are  told,  is  descended  from 
Milesius,^  King  of  Spain,  through  the  line  of  his  son  Here- 
mon.  The  founder  of  the  family  was  Eogan,  ancestor  of 
the  Northern  Hy  Nials  and  son  of  Nial  of  the  Nine  Host- 
ages, King  of  Ireland,  A.  D.  379.  The  ancient  name  was 
Conally  and  signifies  "  A  Light." 

The  possessions  of  the  clan  were  located  in  the  present 
counties  of  Gal  way,  Meath,  and  Donegal.  The  Connellys 
were  also  chiefs  in  Fermanagh. 

The  names  Connelly,  Conally,  Conneally,  Connolly,  Con- 
neallan,  0  'Connell,  and  other  names  of  Irish  families,  are 
derived  from  the  ancient  Milesian  name-O'CoNOHALAiGH. 

The  Connelly  family  is  a  Southern  one  in  America.  It 
has  been  our  boast  and  our  pride  that  it  was  one  of  the 
first  families  in  the  ancient  and  honorable  Commonwealth 
of  South  Carolina.  Thomas  Connelly  and  his  brother 
Edmund,  and  perhaps  two  other  brothers,  John  and 
Henry,  came  from  County  Armagh,  Ireland,  and  settled  at 
Old  Albemarle  Point  about  the  year  1689.  This  settle- 
ment was  moved  later,  to  become  Charlestown,  in  the  col- 
ony of  South  Carolina;  it  is  now  the  metropolis  of  the 
state  of  South  Carolina,  and  the  name  is  written  Charles- 

These  brothers  were  men  of  fortune  and  alTairs,  and 
they  obtained  large  grants  of  land  from  the  proprietors 

1  Genealogy  of  Irish  Families,  by  John  Rooney,  p.  420.  Because  of 
this  descent  the  family  belontjs  to  that  people  called  Milesians  in  Ireland. 
The  Milesians  subdued  and  conquered  the  primitive  race  in  Ireland,  the 
Firbolgs,  the  small,  bow-legged,  long-armed,  red-headed,  Irishmen  of  today 
The   Milesians  have   dark   hair  and  eves   and  very   fair   oomi>h'xion. 


of  the  colonies,  one  such  grant  embracing,  it  is  said,  a  por- 
tion of  the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Charleston.  It  is  said, 
too,  that  they  never  parted  with  the  title  to  this  tract. 
They  engaged  in  town  building  and  the  purchase,  subdi- 
vision and  sale  of  large  tracts  of  land  in  various  colonies, 
but  principally  in  Virginia  and  the  Carolinas.  They  in- 
duced many  Germans  to  move  from  Pennsylvania  to  the 
Carolinas,  so  the  traditions  in  our  family  say,  a  colony  of 
whom  they  settled  on  their  lands  near  the  present  town  of 
Camden,  South  Carolina.  In  this  business  their  descend- 
ants were  also  engaged,  and  it  became  necessary  for  them 
to  send  members  of  the  family  to  live  in  different  parts  of 
the  country,  especially  in  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia,  to 
prevail  on  persons  to  migrate  to  their  lands  and  towns  in 
the  Carolinas.  And  they  engaged  largely  in  traffic  and 
merchandising  by  sea,  owning  vessels  which  plied  between 
the  different  colonies  and  which  visited  the  West  India 
Islands.  They  also  traded  extensively  with  the  Creek  and 
Cherokee  Indians. 

In  the  Revolution  the  Connellys  fought  in  the  patriot 
armies  of  Virginia,  the  Carolinas,  and  Pennsylvania. 
They  served  under  Washington,  Greene,  Morgan,  Gates, 
Howard  (of  Maryland),  Lincoln,  and  Charles  Cotesworth 
Pinckney.  At  the  close  of  the  Revolution  many  of  them 
moved  to  the  West,  and  the  family  became  still  more  wide- 
ly scattered.  There  is  a  belt  of  them  extending  across 
Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  and  to  Central  Missouri.  Some 
members  of  the  family  settled  at  a  very  early  day  in  the 
wilderness  of  Northwestern  Pennsylvania,  and  many  of 
their  descendants  are  to  be  found  there.  Quite  a  number 
of  tliem  settled  in  Kentucky,  in  different  parts  of  the  State. 
Descendants  of  these  pioneer  brothers  are  to  be  found  in 
Tennessee,  Georgia,  Alabama,  Mississippi,  Louisiana,  and 
Texas.  Indeed,  there  are  descendants  of  this  early  family 
in  every  Western  State  and  Territory.  They  remain  in 
large  niinihors  in  the  Carolinas,  Virginia,  and  Pennsyl- 

Dr.  PIenry  Connelly 

One  of  the  first  traders  overland  from  Missouri  to 
northern  Mexico.  An  explorer  in  Mexico,  New  Mexico, 
Texas,  and  Oklahoma.  Was  long  a  merchant  at  Chihua- 
hua. Appointed  Governor  of  New  Mexico  by  Prtsident 
Lincoln.  Born  in  Nelson  (now  Spencer)  County,  Ken 
tucky,  in  the  year  1800.  Died  at  Santa  Fe.  New  Mexico, 
in  July,   1866. 

[From  photograph  in  possesition   of  his  son,  Pctrr  Con- 
nelly, Kansas  City,  Mo.] 


vania.  They  have  been  exceedingly  piolilic,  very  large 
iamilies  having-  been  the  rule  from  the  first.  Conservative 
estimates  place  the  number  of  descendants  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,  who,  after  the  Revolution,  moved  from 
North  Carolina  to  Virginia  and  from  thence  to  Kentucky, 
at  certainly  more  than  one  thousand,  and  possibly  more 
than  two  thousand,  counting  only  the  living.  The  writer 
once  had  a  list  of  thirty  Connelly  families  in  Eastern  Ken- 
tucky, each  of  which  had  ten  or  more  children.  The  name 
is  now  written  in  various  forms,  and  there  has  been,  of 
late  years,  a  tendency  to  shorten  it  to  Conley,  all  the  im- 
mediate relatives  of  this  author  so  writing  it.  Some  of  the 
Illinois  relatives  write  it  Connelli,  and  accent  the  second 
syllable.  Taken  all  together,  the  Connellys  have  been  men 
of  fair  fortune.  They  have  been  of  influence  in  every  com- 
munity in  which  they  have  lived.  Many  of  them  havi;  been 
possessed  of  fine  literary  taste  —  some  of  them  fair  lit 
erary  ability.  They  have  been  ever  in  the  advance  guard 
in  the  spread  of  civilization  over  the  West,  and  in  a  num- 
ber of  States  they  have  been  pioneers.  In  the  Civil  War 
they  were  divided  according  to  the  locality  in  which  they 
lived,  but  they  fought  on  either  one  side  or  the  other  al- 
most to  a  man.  Constantine  Couley,  the  father  of  this 
writer,  was  in  the  Union  army,  from  Eastern  Kentucky 
(the  Forty-fifth  Regiment,  Mounted  Infantry). 

One  of  the  most  distinguished  members  of  the  family 
was  Dr.  Henry  Connelly,  late  Governor  of  New  ^Fexico. 
He  was  bom  in  Nelson  County,  Kentucky,  in  the  y<»ar 
1800.  His  father  was  John  Donaldson  Connelly,  born  in 
Virginia,  and  either  brother  or  first  cousin  to  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,  later  to  be  mentioned  herein.  Dr.  Con- 
nelly graduated  in  medicine  from  the  Transylvania  Uni- 
versity, Lexington,  Kentucky,  in  1828,  and  went  that  same 
year  to  Clay  County,  Missouri,  to  practice  his  profession. 
But  there  forming  the  accpiaintance  of  one  Powell,  an 
overland   trader,   he   joined   his   expedition,   undei*   one 


Stephenson,  to  Chihuahua,  Mexico,  where  he  became  a 
merchant.  In  partnership  with  Edward  J.  Glasgow,  he 
amassed  a  large  fortune.  He  married  a  Spanish  lady. 
The  War  with  Mexico,  in  1846,  made  it  necessary  for  him 
to  leave  that  country,  and  a  large  part  of  his  fortune  was 
confiscated.  He  went  to  New  Mexico  and  met  General 
Kearny  and  Colonel  Doniphan  entering  that  country  to 
annex  it  to  the  United  States.  He  took  part  in  their  op- 
erations, aiding  them  in  many  ways.  At  the  close  of  the 
war  he  settled  in  what  is  now  Valencia  County  and  again 
engaged  extensively  in  merchandising.  His  first  wife  hav- 
ing died,  he  married  there  Dolores  Perea,  widow  of  Jose 
Chavez.  President  Lincoln  appointed  him  Governor  of 
New  Mexico,  and  to  him,  more  than  to  any  other  man,  be- 
longs the  honor  of  saving  the  Territory  to  the  Union  in 
the  Civil  War.  He  died  in  1866  from  an  over-dose  of  med- 
icine. He  has  many  descendants  in  New  Mexico,  and  his 
son,  Peter  Connelly,  Esq.,  has  long  been  a  highly  esteemed 
citizen  of  Kansas  City,  Mo.  Dr.  Connelly  was  one  of  those 
hardy  pioneers  to  whom  the  United  States  owes  the  ex- 
tension of  her  borders.  For  nearly  forty  years  his  cara- 
vans were  among  the  largest  that  annually  crossed  the 
Plains  over  the  Old  Santa  Fe  Trail.  He  led  a  large  party 
from  Chihuahua  to  Fort  Towson,  on  the  Red  River,  Choc- 
taw Nation,  now  Oklahoma,  in  1839.  He  spent  the  winter 
at  that  fort,  returning  to  Chihuahua  in  1840.  In  this  trip 
he  explored  a  large  part  of  what  is  now  Oklahoma  and 
Texas,  and  he  marked  out  new  routes  for  commerce. 

Pjdmund  Connelly,  the  youngest  son  of  Henry  Connelly, 
is  said  to  have  married,  in  South  Carolina,  a  lady  named 
Mary  Edgefield.  They  left  sons  and  daughters,  among 
tboni,  Harmon  and  Thomas. 

Ilannon  Connelly  moved  to  North  Carolina,  where  he 
owned  lands  on  the  then  frontier.  Tradition  says  that  he 
there  married  the  daughter  of  a  physician  named  Hicks. 
This  Hicks,  it  is  affirmed,  had  married  the  daughter  of  a 


Scotchman  who  was  engaged  in  trading  with  the  Clierokees, 
and  who  had  married  a  Clierokee  woman ;  he  seems  to  have 
roamed  the  country  tributary  to  the  Little  Tennessee. 
Hannon  Connelly  appears  to  have  been  of  an  adventurous 
disposition,  for  it  is  related  that  he  made  several  visits  to 
the  wilderness  of  Kentucky,  one  of  which  was  about  17(J3.= 
Thomas  Connelly  followed  in  the  steps  of  his  fore- 
fathers and  dealt  in  lands  and  townsites.  In  this  business 
he  was  often  in  Pennsylvania,  where,  it  seems,  he  must 
have  settled,  as  others  of  his  family  had  done.  Whom  he 
married  is  not  known,  but  in  the  light  of  recent  reliable  in- 
formation it  must  have  been  a  Pennsylvania  Dutch  woman. 
Our  family  traditions  have  always  said  that  the  Connelly 
family  in  Kentucky  had  a  strain  of  Dutch  blood,  though  as 
to  the  ancestor  from  whom  it  flowed  we  were  never  in- 

V  Harmon  Connelly  and  Thomas  Connelly  were  in  the 
War  of  the  Revolution.  Thomas  returned  from  Pennsyl- 
vania to  North  Carolina  and  lived  in  Guilford  County. 
He  was  getting  old,  but  he  served  for  a  time  in  the  First 
South  Carolina  Regiment,  commanded  by  Colonel  Cliarles 
Cotesworth  Pinckney.  His  service  was  in  the  defense  of 
Charleston,  where  he  had  gone  to  consult  Colonel  Pinck- 
ney, who  was  his  attorney  in  some  business  growing  out  of 
land  owned  about  that  city  by  his  ancestors.  This  service 
was  in  the  winter  of  1779-80.  It  is  said,  also,  by  the  tradi- 
tions of  our  family,  that  he  was  wounded  at  the  Battle  of 
King's  Mountain,  the  following  October,  being  there  shot 

2  Before  coming  into  possession  of  all  these  facts  and  when  I  supposed 
I  had  obtained  complete  infonnation  I  believed  Hannon  and  Thomas  mar 
ried  sisters,  daughters  of  this  Dr.  Hicks,  and  so  v.rote  it  in  my  apj>lication 
for  membership  in  the  Society  of  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolution. 
The  family  Bible  of  Captain  Henry  Connelly  disproves  this,  and  I  had 
learned  before  seeing  it,  from  the  pension  |pa])ers  of  the  Captain,  that  this 
was  an  error. 

3  Uncle  Edmund  Connelly,  son  of  Captain  Henry  Connelly,  always  fwiid 
that  bis  grandmother  was  a  Pennsylvania  Dutch  woman.  We  never  ^;avo 
it  credit  until  I  saw  the  pension   pai)ers  of  Captain   Henry  Connelly. 


through  the  body ;  and  the  above-mentioned  Dr.  Hicks  is 
said  to  have  passed  a  silk  handkerchief  several  times 
througli  the  wound  —  through  the  body  —  to  cleanse  it. 
The  soldier  died  from  the  effect  of  this  wound  some  two 
years  later. 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  the  Revolutionary  soldier,  was 
the  son  of  the  above  mentioned  Thomas  Connelly.  He  was 
bom  in  Chester  County,  Pennsylvania,  and  came  with  his 
father  to  Guilford  County,  North  Carolina,  while  yet  a 
child,  probably  soon  after  Braddock's  defeat.  Thomas 
Connelly  was  a  soldier  in  Braddock's  expedition  and  was 
at  the  defeat.  And  it  is  probable  that  it  was  the  expedition 
and  its  disastrous  results  which  caused  him  to  return  to 
North  Carolina. 

The  Clan  MacAlpine 

The  (Jlan  MacAlpine  is  believed  to  be  the  most  ancient 
clan  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland.  There  is  an  old  Gaelic 
tradition  which  says  the  origin  of  the  clan  was  contem- 
porary with  the  formation  of  hillocks  and  streams.  The 
Mac  Alpines  are  descended  from  the  ancient  people  whose 
successors  became  kings  of  Scotland  for  twenty-five  gen- 
erations. The  war  cry  of  the  clan  is  ' '  Remember  the 
death  of  Alpin,"  alluding  to  the  murder  of  King  Alpin 
by  Brudus  after  the  Picts  defeated  the  Scots  near  Dundee 
in  the  year  834.  The  seat  of  the  ancient  clan  was  in 

The  Clan  MacAlpine  is  one  of  the  oldest  families  in  the 
world  with  an  authentic  history.  A  daughter  of  this  old 
clan -Edith  MacAlpine -is  the  maternal  ancestor  of  all 
the  Connellys,  Conleys,  Connelleys,  and  Langleys,  and 
many  of  tlie  Salyers,  Holbrooks,  Stampers,  Halls,  McCoys, 
Grahams,  Underwoods,  Spradlins,  Williams,  Stapletons, 
Ifamiltons,  Jajmes,  Hackworths,  Caudills,  McGuires, 
Mays,  I^itricks,  Rices,  Prices,  Blairs,  Webbs,  Fairchilds, 
Kobinsons,  juid  many  other  Eastern  Kentuckv  families. 


The  Clan  MacGbegor 

The  most  famous  clan  in  Scotland  was  that  of  Mac- 
Gregor.  It  claims  descent  from  Gregor,  third  son  of  King 
Alpin,  who  ruled  Scotland  about  the  year  787,  and  the  clan 
is  spoken  of  in  Scotland  as  the  Clan  Alpin.  The  motto 
of  the  clan  is  ^'Srioghail  mo  r//^ream"-'' Royal  is  my 
race. ' ' 

Sir  Walter  Scott  found  more  in  the  annals  of  tiio  (Man 
MacGregor  for  his  famous  Waverley  Novels  than  in  t)ie 
lore  of  all  the  other  clans  of  Scotland.  Rob  Roy  was  Rob- 
ert Roy  MacGregor,  and  the  novel  of  that  name  is  an 
account  of  the  adventures  of  that  famous  Borderer.  In 
his  Legend  of  Montrose  Scott  finds  some  of  his  most  inter- 
esting characters  among  the  Children  of  the  Mist,  who 
were  the  MacGregors,  this  being  one  of  their  ancient 
names.  In  his  history  of  the  clan  Scott  gives  much  r-urious 
and  interesting  information  about  the  MacGregors.  Tie 
says  ''that  they  were  famous  for  their  misfortunes  and 
the  indomitable  courage  with  which  they  maintained  them- 
selves as  a  clan.  The  MacGregors  strove  to  retain  their 
lands  by  the  cold  steel."  They  had  extensive  possessions 
in  Argyllshire  and  Perthshire  which  they  held  by  the 
sword.  No  other  clan  in  Scotland  ever  did  so  much  fight- 
ing for  their  rights  or  for  their  country. 

The  ancient  seat  of  the  Clan  MacGregor  was  along  both 
sides  of  Loch  Tay,  and  in  modern  times  they  have  lived 
about  the  old  Church  of  Balquhidder,  where  Rob  Koy  is 

Next  to  the  MacAlpine  the  MacGregoi-  is  the  oldest  of 
Highland  clans,  and  these  two  are  closely  related,  one 
being  a  branch  of  the  other.  The  MacGregors  an'  now 
scattered  all  over  the  world,  and  many  of  them  have  l)een 
eminent  as  statesmen,  soldiers,  scholars.  They  are  often 
distinguished  by  a  stern  and  haughty  bearing,  arisiim-  from 
a  consciousness  of  having  played  a  famous  and  honorable 


part  in  the  wars  of  Scotland  and  the  world,  giving  them  a 
sense  of  superiority  they  are  always  ready  to  maintain 
by  an  api^eal  to  arms. 

We  are  proud  of  our  descent  from  the  Clan  MacGregor. 

Archibald  MacGregor,  of  the  Clan  MacGregor,  High- 
lands of  Scotland,  espoused  the  cause  of  Charles  Edward, 
the  Young  Pretender,  in  1745,  as  did  his  clan  and  his 
country.  He  was  a  young  man  of  fine  stature  and  immense 
physical  strength.  His  clan  was  not  in  the  battle  of  Cullo- 
den  Moor,  having  been  stationed  at  another  point,  so  it  is 
said  in  the  traditions  of  our  family,  but  he  had  been  sent 
to  the  commander  of  the  Pretender  forces  with  despatches, 
and  so  was  on  that  disastrous  field.  There  he  was  dread- 
fully wounded,  being  left  on  the  gory  field  for  dead,  and 
his  body  stripped  by  the  Royalist  looters.  He,  however, 
revived  and  with  great  difficulty  and  much  sutfering 
reached  his  own  country.  There  he  was  concealed  until 
he  had  recovered  somewhat  from  his  wounds,  when  he 
succeeded  in  escaping  to  the  colony  of  North  Carolina, 
where  so  many  of  his  countrymen  were  then  living.  There 
he  married  Edith  MacAlpine,  the  daughter  of  a  Highland- 
er who  had  also  been  in  the  battle  of  Culloden  Moor,  and 
who  had  with  great  difficulty  escaped  with  his  family  to 

MacGregor  never  fully  recovered  from  his  wounds.  His 
daughter  Ann  was  bom  February  14,  1756,  and  some  two 
years  later  he  died.  His  widow  married  a  Scotchman 
named  Langley,  and  by  him  had  several  children.  Ann 
MacGregor,  growing  up  with  these  Langley  children,  was, 
it  is  said,  always  called  Ann  Langley  by  her  friends  and 
ac(iuaintances.  Some  of  these  Langleys  moved  from 
North  (Carolina  to  the  Big  Sandy  region  of  Kentuck^^  at  an 
early  day,  and  their  descendants  may  be  yet  found  there. 

Captain  Henr>'  Connelly  married  Ann  MacGregor. 
Xoither  the  date  nor  the  locality  of  this  marriage  is  known, 
but  it  must  liave  been  early  in  1774,  for  their  first  child 


was  born  in  June,  1775.  Tlie  family  Bible  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly  had  the  following  record,  which  1  re- 
moved, and  which  is  now  in  my  library.  The  Bible  was 
found  in  the  Caudill  family,  in  Johnson  County,  Ky.,  in 
1902.  It  was  published  in  Philadelphia  in  1802,  and  it  is 
not  the  Bible  spoken  of  in  the  pension  papers,  in  which  the 
date  of  his  birth  was  recorded  by  his  father  ''  in  Dutch," 
as  he  says  in  his  pension  declaration.  As  he  had  a  son 
Henry  he  was  Henry  Connelly,  senior : 

Henry  Connelly,  sieg'',  was  born  May  2d,  A.  D.  1752. 

[In  his  pension  declaration  he  says  he  was  born 
in  Chester  County,  Pennsylvania,  and  removed 
to  North  Carolina  with  his  father.] 

Ann  Connelly,  his  wife,  was  born  February  14th,  A.  D. 

[Her  maiden  name  was  not  given,  as  it  should 
have  been.] 

Edmund  Connelly,  a  son  of  Heni-y  and  Ann  Connelly, 
was  born  June  2d,  A.  D.  1775. 

[I  remember  him  very  well.  He  married,  in 
North  Carolina,  a  Miss  Joynes.  He  lived  to  a 
great  age.  His  home  was  at  the  head  of  the 
State-road  Fork  of  the  Licking  River,  in  what 
is  now  Magoffin  County,  Kentucky,  where  I 
often  visited  him  when  a  lad.  He  said  his 
grandmother  was  a  Pennsylvania  Dutch  wom- 
an. I  have  seen  him  at  my  father's  house,  in 
Salyersville,  and  have  heard  him  tell  much  of 
the  early  history  of  our  family,  but  as  T  did  not 
write  it  down  at  the  time,  what  lie  said  became 
confused  in  my  mind,  and  it  has  taken  nmch 
labor  to  correct  many  errors  into  which  I  had 
fallen.  I  was  too  young  to  fully  comprehend 
the  importance  of  what  he  said,  and  T  had  not 
then  learned  to  write  well  enough  to  make  a 
record.  I  was  at  religious  services  held  in  liis 
house  in  1865,  and  he  lived  some  years  after 


Thomas  Connelly,  a  son  of  Henry  and  Ann  Connelly, 
was  born  25tli  of  January,  A.  D.  1777. 

[He  was  my  great  grandfather.  He  was  married 
in  North  Carolina  to  Susan  Joynes.  She  was 
the  sister  of  the  wife  of  his  brother  Edmund. 
A  number  of  their  children  were  born  in  North 
Carolina.  It  is  probable  that  they  moved,  with 
his  father,  the  Captain,  to  Botetourt  County, 
Virginia,  where  lived  many  of  the  Connellys, 
and  after  a  residence  of  some  years  there, 
moved  to  Kentucky,  settling  first  in  the  Indian 
Bottom,  on  the  Kentucky  River,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Rockhouse  Pork,  in  what  is  now  Letcher 
County,  where  their  son,  Henry  Connelly,  my 
grandfather,  was  born,  in  1810.  They  moved 
to  what  is  now  Johnson  County,  Kentucky,  and 
settled  on  the  main  branch  of  Jennie's  Creek, 
at  the  mouth  of  Mill  Creek,  where  they  opened 
one  of  the  largest  and  best  farms  in  the  county, 
which  was  afterwards  for  many  years  the  home 
of  Martin  R.  Rice,  Esq.,  long  the  wealthiest 
citizen  of  Johnson  County.  From  this  farm 
they  moved  to  a  large  farm  at  the  mouth  of 
Miller's  Creek,  near  the  Limestone  Cliffs,  four 
or  five  miles  above  Paintsville.  This  farm  was 
long  known  as  the  Burd  Preston  farm.  There 
Thomas  Connelly  died  and  was  buried.  My 
grandfather,  Henry  Connelly,  there  grew  to 
manhood.  Peter  Mankins  was  their  neighbor, 
and  a  good  one  he  was ;  later  he  moved  to  Wash- 
ington County,  Arkansas,  where  he  died  at  the 
age  of  one  hundred  and  fourteen  years.  He 
came  from  North  Carolina  to  Kentucky  with 
the  (/onnellys.  My  great  grandmother  lived 
for  many  years  with  my  gTandfather,  Henry 
Connelly,  on  the  head  of  the  Middle  Pork  of 
Jennie's  Creek,  and  she  died  there  in  the  sum- 
wov  of  1875,  aged  about  ninety-two.  She  was 
<les('euded  from  Prench  Huguenot  families 
named  Partonairre  and  Guyon  or  Guyan.  Her 
unde,  Heniy  Guyan,  is  said  to  have  had  a  trad- 
ing establishment  at  the  mouth  of  the  Guyan- 


dotte  River,  West  Virgiuia,  as  early  as  IT.jO. 
By  some  it  is  said  that  the  river  took  its  name 
from  him,  though  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  it 
was  named,  because  the  Wyandot  Indians 
found  it  a  favorite  hunting-ground,  in  theii- 
honor  or  for  them,  and  was  later  corrupted  to 

My  grandfather,  Henry  Connelly,  married 
Eebecca,  daughter  of  George  Blair,  and  settled 
on  the  farm  above-mentioned.  My  father,  Con- 
stantine  Conley,  was  bom  and  reared  on  that 
farm,  and  when  he  married  he  was  given  a  i)or- 
tiou  of  it  —  the  Wolf  Pen  Branch  —  upon  which 
he  built  a  hewed-log  house,  where  he  went  to 
housekeeping,  and  where  I  was  born.  My 
grandfather  died  and  was  buried  on  liis  farm, 
and  many  others  of  my  kindred  are  there  bur- 
ied, including  my  great  grandmother,  above 

Pegg>^  Connelly,  a  daughter  of  Henry  and  Ann  Con- 
nelly, was  bom  August  8th,  A.  D.  1779. 
[Of  her  I  have  learned  nothing.] 

David  Connelly,  a  son  of  Henry  and  Ann  Connelly,  was 
born  June  24th,  A.  D.  1781. 

[Of  him  I  have  not  learned  anything.  | 

Rachel  Connelly,  a  daughter  of  Henry  and  Ann  Con- 
nelly, was  born  April  8th,  A.  D.  1783. 

[She  married  James  Spradlin,  senior,  who  settK'«l 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Twin  Branches,  on  the  main 
branch  of  Jennie's  Creek,  at  a  very  early  day. 
Spradlin  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Eastern 
Kentucky,  and  was  a  substantial  and  exec H en t 
citizen.  He  left  many  descendants.  I  remem- 
ber him  well,  for  he  lived  to  be  almost  a  liun 
dred  years  old.  He  was  bowed  with  the  wciglil 
of  his  years,  and  after  he  was  ninety  I  iiavc 
seen  him  on  horseback,  riding  to  Paint sville. 
T  helped  to  dig  his  grave,  and  my  fatlier  assist- 
ed to  place  him  in  his  coffin.  So  IxMit  forward 
was  his  head  that  the  coffin-lid  would  not  dose, 


and  it  was  sawed  off  by  my  father  so  as  to  reach 
only  to  his  breast.  Then  the  lid  of  the  box 
which  enclosed  the  coffin  bore  heavily  on  his 
head,  when  nailed  on.  His  death  must  have 
occurred  in  the  year  1871 -possibly  in  1872. 
He  died  at  the  home  of  his  stepson,  William 
Evans,  who  lived  at  the  foot  of  the  gap  on  the 
road  to  Barnett's  Creek,  perhaps  a  mile  from 
the  old  Spradlin  homestead,  which  was  then 
owned  by  Martin  R.  Rice.  He  was  buried  on 
the  hill  across  the  Lower  Twin  Branch  from  his 
old  home.  I  am  unable  to  say  when  his  wife 
Rachel  died.] 

John  Connelly,  a  son  of  Henry  and  Ann  Connelly,  was 
born  August  8th,  A.  D.  1785. 

[He  married  in  North  Carolina  a  sister  of  my 
great  grandmother,  Susan  Joynes  Connelly.  He 
settled  on  Little  Paint  Creek,  near  where  the 
road  from  Paintsville  to  Salyersville  strikes  it, 
and  in  this  vicinity,  also,  lived  his  father.  Cap- 
tain Henry  Connelly.  Hairston  Litteral,  Esq. 
(almost  invariably  spoken  of  as  "Austin  "  Lit- 
teral) lived  near  this  point  for  sixty  years.  The 
descendants  of  John  Connelly  live  mostly  about 
the  Flat  Gap,  Johnson  County,  Kentucky^  his 
children  having  intermarried  with  those  of  a 
settler  named  Jayne  at  that  point.] 

Henry  Connelly,  Jun^,  a  son  of  Henry  and  Ann  Con- 
nelly, was  bora  December  1st,  A.  D.  1787. 

[I  knew  him  very  well.  He  lived  on  the  East 
Branch  of  the  State-road  Fork  of  Licking  Riv- 
er, in  Magoffin  Countj^,  Kentucky.  His  faiTU 
lay  above  that  of  Jilson  Prater,  father  of  Jeff 
Prater,  now  a  wealthy  banker  of  Salyersville. 
I  have  been  at  the  house  of  Uncle  Henry  fre- 
quently. He  was  quite  old,  somewhat  corpu- 
lent, but  large  and  erect.  He  was  a  kindly 
man,  but  Aunt  Polly  was  of  sharp  feature,  sour 
visage,  and  cutting  tongue.  I  have  not  any 
pleasant  recollections  of  her.  She  was  tall  and 
bony,  and  I  was  afraid  of  her,  and  think  Uncle 


Henry  had  a  dread  of  her  two-edged  tongue. 
I  have  not  the  date  of  his  death,] 

Elizabeth  Connelly,  a  daughter  of  Henry  and  Ann  Con- 
nelly, was  born  April  8th,  A.  D.  1789. 

[I  know  nothing  of  her;  am  uncertain  as  to  her 
having  lived  to  womanhood,  though  she  may 
have  married  and  left  children.] 

William  Connelly,  a  son  of  Henry  and  Ann  Connelly, 
was  born  July  8th,  A.  D.  1791. 

[He  was  a  millwright,  and  was  drowned  in  the 
ford  of  the  Big  Sandy  River  below  the  mouth 
of  Abbott's  Creek,  two  miles  below  Prestons- 
burg,  Floyd  County,  Kentucky.  He  was  build- 
ing a  mill  there  at  the  time.  The  weather  was 
warm,  and  after  eating  dinner  one  day  he  and 
his  workmen  went  bathing  or  swimming  in  the 
deep  water  above  the  ford.  He  was  a  fine 
swimmer,  but  it  was  supposed  that  having  so 
recently  eaten  caused  some  revulsion  of  nature 
when  he  had  been  in  the  water  a  few  minutes, 
and  he  sank  and  drowned  before  assistance 
could  be  had.  His  body  washed  through  the 
ford  and  settled  in  a  deep  eddy  below.  His 
men  joined  hands  and  formed  a  line  reaching  to 
him  and  rescued  him.  He  was  unmarried,  a 
young  man  of  great  promise,  and  was  sincerely 
mourned  by  the  settlers.  He  was  buried  on 
the  farm  of  my  great  grandfather,  at  the  mouth 
of  Miller's  Creek.] 

Joseph  Connelly,  a  son  of  Henry  and  Ann  Connelly, 
was  born  July  8th,  A.  D.  1795. 

[I  have  no  information  concerning  him  other  than 
this  entry.] 

The  above  is  an  exact  copy,  excepting  my  comments, 
with  the  difference  that  the  name  is  uniformly  written 
"Connely."  There  is  no  '*A.  D."  in  the  dates  of  William 
and  Joseph.  The  record  is  well  writtc^n  in  blue  ink,  and 
was  evidently  copied  at  one  sitting  from  some  other  rec- 


ord,  for  the  writing  is  uniform.  The  writing  is  not  that 
of  Captain  Connelly.  He  wrote  his  name  on  the  inside 
front  cover  of  the  Bible,  and  the  signature  is  in  a  fine,  firm, 
bold  one,  and  the  name  is  written  "Connelly."  I  took  it 
out  of  the  Bible,  tearing  off  the  white  lining-sheet  of  the 
cover,  and  I  have  the  signature  in  my  library.  It  is  the 
same  signature  I  saw  affixed  to  papers  in  the  Pension 
Bureau.  Each  and  every  letter  is  distinctly  and  perfectly 
formed,  and  the  signature  was  rapidly  written,  as  is  evi- 
dent from  its  appearance.     It  is  ''Henry  Connelly  Sen^." 

There  is  no  record  of  marriages  and  none  of  deaths, 
except  the  entry: 

Henry  Connelly,  Sen^",  deceased  May  the  7th,  1840. 

On  a  leaf  inserted  in  the  Bible  is  the  record  of  the 
Hitchcock  family,  as  follows: 

John  Hitchcock  was  born  Jan.  the  2nd,  1772. 

Temperance  Hitchcock,  his  wife,  was  born  March  22nd, 

Names  and  births  of  the  above  named  parents. 

Phebe  Hitchcock  was  bom  Dec.  5th,  1798. 

Margaret  Hitchcock  was  bom  July  25th,  1800. 

John  Hitchcock  was  born  Sept.  8th,  1803. 

Parker  Hitchcock  was  bom  Sept.  1st,  1805. 

The  date  of  the  death  of  Ann  Connelly  is  not  given,  and 
I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  it,  but  it  must  have  oc- 
curred about  1830.  In  1832  (March  8th)  Captain  Con- 
nelly married  Temperance  Hitchcock,  above  named,  widow 
til  en  of  John  Hitchcock.  The  Hitclicocks  were  Quakers, 
and  came  to  Kentucky  from  North  Carolina,  and  it  is 
])ossible  that  they  there  knew  Captain  Connelly  and 
family.  Prom  the  Hitchcock  family  here  mentioned  are 
descended  many  of  the  Caudills,  Pelphreys,  and  all  the 
Hitclicocks  of  Johnson  and  Magoffin  counties,  Kentucky. 

I  )()\vii  to  the  family  Bible  from  which  the  foregoing  rec- 
ord is  taken  our  infoimation  rests  on  traditions  told  in  our 
faniily,  and  not  on  written  records,  and  later  research  may 


discover  some  errors,  though  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  it 
will  be  confirmed  largely,  if  not  completely,  for  I  have 
devoted  much  time  to  sifting  the  matter  and  gathering 
information.  I  was  fortunate  in  knowing  the  old  people 
of  the  family,  with  whom  I  talked  from  my  youth  up.  The 
record  of  Dr.  Heniy  Connelly,  Governor  of  New  Mexico, 
and  of  his  family,  is  made  from  written  documents. 

Heniy  Connelly  was  a  captain  of  cavalry,  in  the  War 
of  the  Eevolution,  in  North  Carolina.  The  record  of  this 
service  is  contained  in  the  declarations  made  in  application 
for  a  pension,  now  on  file  in  the  Bureau  of  Pensions, 
Washington,  and  of  which  I  made  complete  copies  in  the 
year  1902.     These  declarations  are  set  out  here : 

State  of  Kentucky  ) 
County  of  Floyd      ( ^^ 


On  this  15th  day  of  August,  1833,  personally  appeared 
before  me,  James  Davis,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  now  sit- 
ting, Henry  Connelly,  a  resident  of  Floyd  County,  and 
State  of  Kentucky,  aged  Eighty-one  years,  who  being  first 
duly  sworn  according  to  law  doth  on  his  oath  make  the 
following  declaration,  in  order  to  obtain  the  benefit  of  the 
act  of  Congress  passed  June  7th,  1832: 

That  he  entered  the  service  of  the  United  States  under 
the  following  named  officers  and  served  as  herein  stated : 

That  he  entered  the  sei-vice  and  commanded  one  hundred 
men  as  State  troops  of  North  Carolina  (called  militia) 
as  the  Captain  thereof  on  the  7th  day  of  July,  1777,  for 
five  years  or  during  the  war  in  the  County  of  Guilford, 
North  Carolina.  TTis  Colonel  in  the  first  inst-ance  was 
Colonel  John  Williams.  Then  under  Colonel  Paisley. 
Then  by  Colonel  John  Taylor.  And  lastly,  by  Colonel 
Billy  Washington.  This  applicant's  company  was  a  Horse 
Company  and  was  raised  for  the  es])(Minl  pnri)ose  of  keep 


ing  down  a  daring  Tory  Colonel  by  the  name  of  Fanning 
who  had  made  several  daring  attempts  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Salisbury  and  Charlotte.*  During  the  first  year 
of  the  service  of  this  applicant,  by  the  orders  of  his  Col- 
onel, the  company  traversed  and  marched  to  Rowan  and 
Guilford  in  order  to  keep  Fanning  and  his  confederates 
down.  During  this  year,  in  the  month  of  October,  the 
company  encountered  his  scouts  and  routed  them  with 
some  loss.  The  general  rendezvous  of  the  Tories  was  in 
that  region  of  the  country  called  the  Haw  Ford  on  Haw 
River.  These  counties  and  the  adjacent  neighborhood 
was  assigned  to  the  applicant's  charge  by  his  Excellency, 
the  Governor  of  North  Carolina,  in  the  month  of  June, 
1778.  This  this  applicant  and  his  company  continued  to  do 
during  this  year  1778.  And  that  winter  he  and  his  com- 
pany rendezvoused  at  Salisbury.  The  particulars  of  this 
year's  service  was  only  a  few  fights  with  the  Tories.  The 
war  was  raging  in  the  North,  whither  that  distinguished 

*  Fanning,  the  Tory,  mentioned  here  was  the  famous  and  notorious  outlaw 
of  the  Revolution.  He  was  born  in  Johnston  County,  North  Carolina,  in  the 
year  1754,  "of  obscure  parentage."  The  poverty  of  his  condition  was  such 
that  he  was  ' '  bound  out ' '  for  his  support  to  a  Mr.  Bryant,  who  proved  a  cruel 
and  perhaps  brutal  master,  and  Fanning  ran  away  when  about  sixteen.  His 
plight  was  so  miserable  that  some  of  his  acquaintances  secured  for  him  a 
home  with  a  substantial  citizen,  John  O.  Deniell,  who  lived  at  the  Haw  Fields, 
in  Orange  County.  He  had  the  scald  head  and  was  not  allwoed  to  eat  at  the 
table  with  the  family,  nor  was  he  permitted  to  sleep  in  a  bed.  When  grown 
up  he  always  wore  a  silk  cap  —  his  most  intimate  friends  never  saw  his  head 
uncovered.  When  about  twenty  years  of  age  he  went  to  trade  with  the 
Catawba  Indians,  in  South  Carolina,  and  there  accumulated  considerable  prop- 
erty. Up  to  this  time  he  had  been  a  Whig.  As  he  returned  to  North  Caro- 
lina ho  was  set  upon  and  robbed  of  all  his  property  by  ' '  some  lawless  fel- 
lows, ' '  whom  he  supposed  to  be  Whigs.  He  immediately  became  a  bitter  and 
relentless  Tory  and  sought  every  opportunity  to  wreak  vengeance  on  Whigs 
indiscriminately  and  to  injure  the  Revolutionary  cause.  He  murdered,  as  he 
says,  many  (latriots  and  burned  their  houses.  He  was  bold  and  daring  and 
succeeded  in  capturing  Governor  Burke,  of  North  Carolina,  whom  he  carried 
a  prisoner  into  the  British  lines.     He  was  the  Quantrill  of  the  Revolution. 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolution  he  went  to  Florida.  He  wished  to  return 
to  North  ('arolina,  but  he  was  always  excepted  in  bills  of  amnesty  passed  by 
the    Legislature    and    remained,    consequently,    proscribed    and    exiled.     He 


and  active  officer,  Colonel  William  Davidson  had  ^one,  and 
all  remaining  for  the  constituted  authorities  to  do  was  to 
keep  down  the  Tories,  which  were  so  numerous  in  this 
region  of  North  Carolina.  During  this  year,  1778,  the 
men  suffered  much  for  clothes  and  every  necessaiy,  and 
our  forage  master  frequently  had  to  press  forage  for  our 
perishing  horses.  Continental  money  was  then  one  hun- 
dred dollars  for  one -for  this  applicant  could  not  get  a 
breakfast  for  $100  in  Continental  money.  During  this 
year,  by  order  of  the  Governor,  this  applicant's  comjiany 
was  placed  under  the  direction  of  Colonel  Davie,  who  then 
commanded  the  North  Carolina  Cavalry ;  but  he  renewe<i 
the  old  orders,  and  my  district  still  remained  as  under 
my  former  orders. 

Early  in  March,  1779,  the  Tories  broke  out  with  great 
fury  at  a  place  called  the  Haw  Fields,  whither  this  a])pli 

moved  to  New  Bruuswick  and  was  there  a  member  of  the  local  Lefjisiature. 
In  1799  he  moved  to  Nova  Scotia,  where  he  was  Colonel  of  the  militia.  Ho 
died  at  Digby,  Nova  Scotia,  in  the  year  1825. 

Fanning  was  a  man  of  ability  and  the  local  leader  of  the  Torifs  in  the 
Carolinas.  He  was  the  man  on  whom  the  King's  forces  always  relied  and  who 
never  failed  them.  It  was  a  distinct  compliment  to  Captain  Heiuy  Con 
nelly  that  he  was  selected  to  fight  Fanning  and  keep  him  down,  and  he  s<>cnis 
to  have  been  able  to  cope  with  the  daring  Tory  leader.  Fanning  says  many 
of  his  men  were  taken  to  Hillsboro  and  Salisbury  and  there  hung  by  the 
"rebels"  as  he  called  the  Revolutionary  authorities.  No  doubt  these  |>ri8 
oners  were  taken  there  by  Captain  Connelly. 

Fanning  wrote  an  account  of  his  doings  in  Xorth  Carolina,  and  the  book 
waa  published  at  Richmond,  Virginia,  for  private  distribution  only,  in  1S61  — 
"In  the  First  Year  of  the  independence  of  the  Confederate  States  of  Amer- 
ica." The  edition  was  very  limited,  only  fifty  cojiiea  of  the  (|uarto  form 
being  printed.  And  it  is  probable  that  these  were  the  only  cojiies  j.rinted. 
The  copy  of  Colonel  James  H.  Wheeler,  the  historian  of  North  Carolina,  is 
now  in  my  private  library.  It  is  one  of  the  rarest  and  most  valuable  of  all 
American  books.     The  title  of  the  work  is  as  follows: 

"The  Narrative  of  Colonel  David  Fanning,  (A  Tory  in  the  Revolutionary 
War  with  Great  Britain;)  (Jiving  an  Acc<uint  of  his  .Vdventures  in  North 
Carolina,  From  1775  to  1783.  As  Written  by  Himself.  With  an  Introduction 
and  Explanatory  Notes.  Richmond,  Va.  I'rinted  for  Private  Distribution 
Only.  1861.  In  the  First  Vear  of  the  Iniiei)en(leni-e  of  fli.'  ("onfod.'mte 
States  of  .\ni(>rica. ' ' 


cant  and  his  company  repaired  and  dislodged  them  with 
the  assistance  of  Colonel  Lyttle  from  Rowan,  who  com- 
manded a  regiment  of  militia.  During  this  year  the  Tories 
were  fast  accumulating  in  Rowau,  and  this  applicant's 
Horse  Company  was  almost  withdrawn  from  Guilford  to 
that  section  of  North  Carolina.  The  Whigs  this  year  took 
a  great  many  Tories,  who  were  all  put  in  jail  and  confined 
at  Hillsboro  and  Salisbury. 

In  the  month  of  November,  1779,  orders  were  received 
by  Colonel  Paisley  from  Colonel  Davie,  the  commanding 
Colonel,  to  rendezvous  at  Salisbury  to  start  to  the  South 
to  join  General  Lincoln  at  Savannah,  but  about  this  time 
news  arrived  that  General  Lincoln  was  overtaken  at 
Charlestown,  and  all  were  taken  prisoners.  General 
Davidson  now  raised  several  hundred  men,  and  Colonel 
Smnner  and  Colonel  Brevard  had  several  skirmishes  with 
the  Loyalists,  in  which  this  applicant  and  his  company 
actively  participated  at  Colson's  Mills.  About  this  time 
at  a  place  in  the  western  part  of  the  state  (N.  C.)  the 
Tories  had  collected  to  a  great  number  and  we  marched 
against  them  and  [met  them]  at  Colson's  Mills.  This 
was  in  the  Month  of  May,  1780,  as  well  as  this  applicant 
recollects.  He  recollects  well  that  it  was  just  before  or 
about  the  time  of  Gates'  defeat  at  Camden.  During  this 
winter  and  the  fall  this  applicant's  company  abandoned 
his  district  of  "  protection  "  and  under  Colonel  Davie  and 
(ieneral  Davidson  opposed  the  passage  of  Lord  Corn- 
wallis  through  North  Carolina.  At  the  time  of  the  ap- 
proach of  Cornwallis  to  Charlotte,  under  Colonel  Davie 
the  troops  posted  themselves  to  meet  the  enemy.  On 
the  enemy's  api)roach  the  companies  commanded  by  this 
a])plicant  received  the  first  onset  from  Tarleton's  cavalry, 
and  the  firing  became  general  on  the  left  wing.  The  troops 
were  conmianded  by  Colonel  Davie  in  person,  and  for  three 
times  we  succeeded  in  rejnilsing  the  enemy.    At  length  we 


had  to  yield  to  superior  numbers.  In  tliis  battle  we  liad 
many  men  killed,  several  from  under  this  applicant. 

In  December,  just  before  Christmas,  General  Nathaniel 
Greene,  from  the  North,  took  command  of  us  all.  This 
was  in  1780.  We  all,  by  his  proclamation  and  the  orders 
of  our  Governor,  were  placed  under  his  command,  and 
assembled  at  Charlotte.  From  there  this  applicant  was 
placed  under  Colonel  Washington  and  marched  to  South 
Carolina,  to  Augusta  and  Ninety  Six.  After  marching 
in  a  southern  direction  for  several  days  news  came  that 
Tarleton  was  after  us.  We  were  all  now  under  General 
Morgan,  and  a  terrible  conflict  ensued  at  the  Cowpens 
between  Tarleton 's  men  and  the  army  under  General 
Morgan.  Here  the  Americans  were  victorious  and  took 
a  great  many  militaiy  stores,  cannons,  baggage,  and  six 
or  seven  hundred  British  and  Tory  prisoners.  This  was 
in  January,  1781.  It  was  cold  weather,  but  inclined  to  be 
raining  during  this  battle.  The  company  which  belonged 
to  this  applicant  was  placed  under  a  Colonel  Howard,  on 
the  extreme  right  of  the  Division,  and  this  ap])licant  com- 
manded a  company  in  the  center.  Our  com])any,  when 
just  about  to  catch  up  our  horses,  was  hid  about  four  hun- 
dred paces  in  the  rear  of  the  line  of  battle.  [The  enemy] 
fell  upon  us  with  great  fury,  but  we  were  fortunately  re- 
lieved by  Washington's  Legion  that  hastened  to  our  as- 

After  this  engagement  we  all  formed  a  junction  with 
General  Greene,  and  retreated  with  him  to  Dan  [River], 
and  crossed  over  into  Virginia,  and  remaining  there  but 
a  short  period,  marched  back  to  Guilford  Court  House, 
and  this  applicant  actively  participated  in  this  memorable 
battle,  and  he  had  the  mortification  to  see  his  men  in  a 
panic  fly  at  the  approach  of  the  enemy;  and  although  this 
applicant  endeavored  to  rally  them,  it  was  im})ossil)U'.  and 
many  even  retreated  to  their  homes.     But  this  a])plicant 


remained  and  continued  to  fight  until  the  Americans  were 
thrown  into  disorder  and  confusion  and  defeated. 

At  this  time,  or  a  few  days  afterwards,  this  applicant 
being  unwell,  and  his  company  broken,  obtained  a  respite 
for  awhile,  which  was  granted  him  [by  the  Governor]. 
He  remained  at  home  and  did  not  go  with  General  Greene 
to  Ninety  Six.  During  this  summer  he  did  all  he  could 
to  get  his  company  to  assemble.  Their  cry  was  ' '  no  pay ' ' 
and  their  families  required  them  at  home.  He  then  went 
from  Guilford  over  to  Virginia,  and  in  September,  1781, 
he  raised  a  small  volunteer  company  for  three  months,  to 
join  General  Washington  at  Little  York  [  Yorktown] .  Lit- 
tle York  was,  however,  taken  before  this  applicant  ar- 
rived. He  knew  a  great  many  Continental  officers  and 
Regiments,  and  Militia  officers,  during  his  service.  In 
the  month  of  October  the  term  of  service  of  the  Company 
from  Montogmery  County,  Virginia,  just  mentioned,  ex- 
piring, he  gave  them  their  discharges,  and  he  himself  re- 
turned to  North  Carolina,  where  he  received  the  thanks  of 
the  Governor  and  a  Certificate  stating  his  services. 

This  applicant  knew  General  Smallwood,  General  Dav- 
idson, General  Rutherford,  General  Pickens,  General 
Sumner,  General  Otho  Williams,  Colonel  Cleveland,  Col- 
onel Lyttle,  Colonel  William  Washington,  Colonel  Mal- 
mody  ( f ),  Colonel  Lee  (from  Virginia),  General  Goodwin, 
Colonel  Howard  who  commanded  the  Third  Maryland 
Regiment,  Captain  Holgin,  Colonel  Paiseley,  John  Wil- 
liams, the  Baron  DeKalb,  Colonel  Brevard,  and  many 
other  Continental  and  Militia  officers  that  he  has  now 

He  has  now  no  documentary  evidence  in  his  favor,  hav- 
ing forwarded  his  commission  about  six  years  ago  by 
General  Alexander  Lackey  to  the  War  Department.  It 
lias  never  been  returned  to  this  applicant.  He  received 
a  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  War  informing  him  that 
as  he  was  not  a  regular  he  could  not  be  allowed  his  [pen- 


sion].  His  commission  was  from  the  Governor  of  North 
Carolina.  He  has  made  search  and  inquiry  for  it  for 
some  time,  and  he  believes  the  same  is  now  lost  or  mislaid. 

He  refers  the  War  Department  to  Henry  B.  Mayo,  Esq., 
the  Hon.  David  K.  Harris,  to  Colonel  Francis  A.  Brown, 
to  Colonel  John  Van  Hoose,  the  Rev*^  Henry  Dixon,  the 
ReV^  Cuthbert  Stone,  the  ReV*  Samuel  Hanna,  the  Rov** 
Ezekiel  Stone,  and  Rev<^  Wallace  Bailey,  to  Andrew  Rule, 
Esq.,  to  John  Rice,  to  Jacob  Mayo,  Esq.,  Clerk  of  the 
Floyd  County  and  Circuit  Courts.  These  can  testify  to 
his  character  for  veracity  and  their  belief  of  this  apj)!!- 
cant's  services  as  a  soldier  and  officer  of  the  Revolution. 

Sworn  to  and  subscribed  the  day  and  year  aforesaid. 
(Signed)     Henry  Connelly     [Seal! 
Att:     J.  Davis. 

We,  Wallace  Bailey,  a  Clergyman,  residing  in  the  Coun 
ty  of  Floyd  and  State  of  Kentucky,  and  John  Rice,  resid- 
ing in  the  same,  towit,  Floyd  County,  Kentuck}",  hereby 
certify  that  they  are  well  acquainted  with  Henry  Connelly, 
who  has  subscribed  and  sworn  to  the  above  declaration, 
that  we  believe  him  to  be  eighty-one  years  of  age,  that  he 
is  reputed  and  believed  in  the  neighborhood  where  he 
resides  to  have  been  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  and  that 
we  concur  in  that  opinion. 

Sworn  to  and  subscribed  the  day  and  year  aforesaid. 
(Signed)  Wallis  Bailey     [Seall 

John  Rice  [Seal] 

And  I  do  hereby  declare  my  opinion  after  the  investiga- 
tion of  the  matter,  and  after  putting  the  interrogatories 
prescribed  by  the  War  Department,  that  the  above  named 
applicant  was  a  Revolutionary  soldier  (an  officer)  and 
served  as  he  states.  And  I  further  certify  that  it  appears 
to  me  that  Wallis  Bailey  who  has  signed  the  pret'oding 
certificate  is  a  Clergyman  resident  in  the  County  of  Floyd 


and  State  of  Kentucky,  and  that  John  Rice,  who  has  also 
signed  the  same,  is  a  resident  of  the  County  of  Floyd  and 
State  of  Kentucky,  and  are  credible  persons,  and  that  their 
statement  is  entitled  to  credit,  and  I  do  further  certify 
that  the  applicant  cannot,  from  bodily  infirmity,  attend 

(Signed)  James  Davis,  J.  P.  F.  Co.  [Seal] 


Where  and  what  year  were  you  bornf 

Ans.  I  was  born  in  Pennsylvania,  Chester  County,  on 
the  2d  day  of  May,  1751. 

Have  you  any  record  of  your  age,  and  if  so,  where  is  it  ? 

Ans.  I  have  it  in  my  Bible,  recorded  there  by  my 
father  (in  Dutch),     I  have  it  now  at  my  house. 

Where  were  you  living  when  called  into  service,  where 
have  you  lived  since  the  Revolutionary  War,  and  where 
do  you  now  live? 

Ans.  I  was  living  in  Guilford  County,  North  Carolina, 
where  I  had  lived  since  my  father  moved  from  Chester 
[County]  Pennsylvania,  up  to  the  Revolution.  I  have 
lived  three  years  in  the  County  of  Montgomery,  in  the 
State  of  Virginia,  and  the  residue  of  the  time  I  have  lived 
in  this  County  -  where  I  now  live. 

How  were  you  called  into  service.  Were  you  drafted, 
did  you  volunteer,  or  were  you  a  substitute,  and  if  a  substi- 
tute, for  whom? 

Ans.  I  was  a  volunteer,  under  the  Government  of 
North  Carolina,  by  an  invitation  from  the  Governor,  and 
[my  command]  were  called  State  troops  or  Militia.  A 
part  of  the  men  under  my  command  were  drafted  men  for 
eighteen  months.  A  small  portion  was  for  six  months, 
and  about  forty  were  volunteers  for  and  during  the  War. 
T  WHS  called  into  sei-vice  by  a  recruiting  officer  by  the  name 
of  llolgin,  I  think  a  regular  officer.     I  made  up  my  com- 


pany  and  reported  to  the  Colonel  and  went  forthwith 
into  active  service. 

State  the  names  of  some  of  the  regular  officers  who  were 
with  the  troops  when  you  served,  such  Continental  and 
Militia  Regiments  as  you  can  recollect,  and  the  general 
circumstances  of  your  service. 

Ans.  I  knew  General  Greene.  I  have  seen  General 
Gates  at  Hillsboro.  [I  knew]  General  Smallwood, 
General  Davidson,  General  Pickens,  General  Sumner, 
General  Otho  Williams,  Colonel  Billy  Washington,  Col- 
onel Lee,  Colonel  Howard,  the  Baron  DeKalb.  1  have 
seen,  in  1780,  Captain  Holgin,  Colonel  John  Williams,  Col- 
onel Nat  Williams,  who  commanded  the  Ninth  Regiment 
North  Carolina  Militia  in  1778,  Colonel  Paiseley,  Colonel 
Buncombe,  Captain  Charles  Briant,  Colonel  Brevard, 
Major  (often  called  Colonel)  De  Malmody,  and  old  Col- 
onel Cleveland,  Lieut.  Joseph  Lewis,  Major  Charles  An- 
derson, William  Boma,  Ensign. 

I  was  directed  by  Governor  Burke  and  Colonel  Davie  to 
keep  down  Fanning  in  Guilford  and  Rowan.  This  this 
applicant  did  with  one  hundred  men,  a  horse  company. 
He  served  in  1777  in  tliis  capacity,  likewise  in  1778,  and 
until  the  fall  of  1779.  He  then  joined  General  Davidson 
and  was  with  him  at  the  battle  of  Col  son's  Mills,  where 
he  got  wounded.  This  was  in  May  or  June,  1780.  He 
was  at  the  battle  of  Hillsboro,  and  had  nineteen  of  his 
horsemen  killed  on  the  field,  and  seven  died  the  next  day 
of  their  wounds.  I  was  in  the  battle  of  the  Cowpens, 
under  Colonel  Washington,  in  January,  1781,  and  Tarle- 
ton  was  defeated  and  we  took  his  baggage  and  several 
hundred  prisoners.  I  retreated  with  my  horse  company 
with  General  Greene  to  Dan  [River  |  went  over  into  Vir- 
ginia, and  remained  with  the  ai-my  until  the  battle  of 
Guilford  [Court  House].  T  was  in  that  battle,  and  my 
men  all  broke  very  near  at  first  charge,  in  a  ])aiiic,  and 
fled,  and  many  went  even  home.     When  my  roll  was  called 


at  the  Iron  Works  I  had  but  a  few  men  left.  I  was  then 
taken  in  a  few  days  afterwards  sick,  and  was  permitted 
for  my  health  to  retire  for  awhile  from  the  service.  This 
was  in  April,  1781.  General  Greene  went  to  South  Caro- 
lina, and  I  went  over  into  Montgomery  County,  Virginia, 
to  see  my  relatives,  and  I  here  raised  a  three  months  vol- 
unteer company  to  march  to  Little  York.  I  marched 
them  on  to  the  Big  Lick,  in  Botetourt  County,  in  Septem- 
ber, and  waited  for  orders,  but  before  I  received  them  it 
was  too  late,  and  I  gave  my  men  their  discharges.  We 
all  went  home. 

Did  you  ever  receive  a  Commission,  and  if  so,  by  whom 
was  it  signed,  and  what  has  become  of  it? 

Ans.  I  did  receive  a  Captain's  Commission  from  Gov- 
ernor Burke  of  North  Carolina.  It  was,  I  believe,  signed 
by  him.  I  gave  it  about  six  years  ago  to  General  Lackey, 
who  says  he  sent  it  on  to  the  War  Department,  he  thinks. 
I  have  made  search  and  cannot  find  it.  It  was  never  re- 
turned to  me. 

State  the  names  of  persons  to  whom  you  are  known  in 
your  present  neighborhood  and  who  can  testify  as  to  your 
character  for  veracity,  and  their  belief  of  your  services  as 
a  soldier  (and  officer)  of  the  Revolution. 

Ans.  I  refer  to  General  Lackey,  to  Colonel  Brown,  Col- 
onel T.  W.  Graham,  to  Austin  Litteral,  to  Jacob  Mayo, 
Esq.,  to  Andrew  Rule,  to  the  Rev"^  Ezekiel  Stone,  to  Rev"* 
Wallis  Bailey. 

Sworn  to  before  me. 

(Signed)  James  Davis,  J.  P.  F.  C.     [Seal] 

State  of  Kentucky 

Floyd  County  '^ 

Personally  appeared  before  the  undersigned,  one  of  the 
Conimonwealth's  Justices  of  the  Peace,  Phillip  William- 


son,  Senior,  of  the  County  of  Lawrence,  Kentucky,  and 
naade  oath  that  he  is  eighty-four  years  of  age,  that  prev- 
ious to  the  commencement  of  the  American  Revolution  he 
resided  in  Wake  County,  North  Carolina,  that  he  shortly 
after  the  commencement  of  the  Revolution  moved  to  Guil- 
ford County,  and  afterwards  to  Rowan  County,  that  in  the 
year  1777,  in  the  fall  season  thereof,  Captain  Heniy  Con- 
nelly, now  of  this  County,  Floyd,  was  constituted  and 
commissioned  a  Captain  in  the  North  Carolina  Cavalrj'. 
I  was  then  well  acquainted  with  him,  and  he  was  appointed 
to  keep  down  one  Fanning.  I  was  frequently  with  him 
in  the  next  year  in  Rowan.  This  was  in  the  summer  of 
1778.  He  then  commanded  the  company  of  Cavalry  afore- 
said. I  recollect  to  have  seen  him  several  times  in  Hills- 
boro  where  the  prisoners  were  kept.  And  I  also  recollect 
him  and  his  company  was  in  the  service  during  the  year 
following,  in  1779,  for  I  well  remember  several  Tories 
his  company  brought  in.  In  the  month  of  February,  1780, 
I  left  Rowan,  and  came  over  to  Washington  County,  in 
the  State  of  Virginia.  I  remained  there  till  May,  and  I 
went  back  to  North  Carolina.  Captain  Connelly  was  then 
out  with  his  horse  company  under  General  Davidson 
against  the  Tories.  I  do  not  now  remember  that  I  saw 
him  any  more  for  some  time.  I,  about  this  time,  enlisted 
in  the  service  as  a  '^  Three  Months  "man,  and  joined  Gen- 
eral Greene.  When  we  were  retreating  I  again  saw  Capt. 
Connelly  commanding  his  company  in  the  service  as  a 
Captain.  The  Infantry  was  compelled  to  assist  the  Cav- 
alry over  the  streams.  He  was  in  the  battle  of  Guilford. 
I  recollect  that  I  saw  him  a  day  or  two  afterwards  in  the 
army.  I  have  known  him  for  a  long  time  since  the  Revolu- 
tion. Captain  Connelly  was  a  Ca])tain  of  the  troops 
raised  by  North  Carolina  (not  Continental).  And  further 
this  deponent  saith  not. 

(Signed)  Philli])  Williamson     |Seall 

[Signed  by  mark] 


Sworn  to  and  executed  before  Francis  A.  Brown,  Justice 
of  the  Peace  of  Floyd  County,  October  2d,  1833. 


Floyd  County  Court 
August,  1833 

On  this  24th  day  of  August,  1833,  personally  appeared 
before  me,  the  undersigned,  one  of  the  Commonwealth's 
Justices  of  the  Peace  for  Floyd  County,  Jonathan  Pytts, 
an  aged  man,  and  now  on  the  Pension  Agency  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  made  the  following  statement  on  oath  relative 
to  the  service  of  Captain  Henry  Connelly,  who  was  an 
officer  in  the  Eevolutionary  War.  This  affiant  states  that 
he  resided  in  Rowan  County,  North  Carolina,  long  before 
the  War,  and  that  during  the  year  1777  Captain  Henry 
Connelly,  who  was  a  Captain  of  a  horse  company  from 
Guilford  arrived  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  uncle  of  this 
affiant,  with  whom  this  affiant  then  resided.  His  business, 
as  he  told  us,  was  to  assist  us  in  keeping  the  Tories  down. 
A  great  many  Scotch  Tories  had  accumulated  under  Fan- 
ning, and  many  about  the  Haw  Fields,  and  a  place  called 
Cross  Creek.  He  was,  off  and  on,  during  that  year,  in 
Rowan.  I  saw  him  several  times  in  Salisbury  in  that 
year.  In  the  year  1778  he  and  his  company  still  were  in 
Rowan.  He  knew  him  very  well  in  the  year  1779,  for  he 
was,  according  to  this  affiant's  recollection,  all  the  year  in 
Rowan  until  Colonel  William  Davidson  came  back  from 
General  Washington's  army  and  raised  men  to  go  and 
help  General  Lincoln  at  Charleston,  South  Carolina.  This 
affiant  saw  Captain  Connelly  frequentlj^  with  his  horse 
company  in  Rowan.  And  the  next  year,  or  the  year  after, 
this  affiant  again  saw  him  and  his  company  just  before 
General  Greene  got  to  Dan,  He  was  along  with  the  army. 
This  affiant  does  not  know  whether  Captain  Connelly  was 
in  the  ])atth'  of  Guilford  or  not,  for  this  affiant  had  been 
sent  on  an  express  to  Burke  (now  called  Burke).  He 
does  not  know  liow  long  Ca])tain  Connelly  enlisted  for. 


He  belonged  to  the  North  Carolina  Cavalry,  and  how  long 
he  served  this  affiant  does  not  know  precisely.     He  does 
not  know  who  was  Captain  Connelly's  Colonel;  if  he  ever 
knew  he  has  entirely  forgotten.     The  impression  of  this 
affiant  is  that  Captain  Connelly's  horse  com])any  consisted 
of  one  hundred  men,  but  he  does  not  pretend  to  certainty 
about  this  fact.    And  further  this  deponent  saith  not. 
(Signed)                       Jonathan  Pytts     [Seal] 
[Signed  by  mark] 
Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  Stephen  Hamilton,  Jus- 
tice of  the  Peace,  Floyd  County,  Kentucky,  August  24, 

Commonwealth  of  Kentucky    )  ^^ 
Floyd  County,  to-wit  ) 

On  this   [10th]   day  of  October,  1833,  personally  ap- 
peared before  me,  the  undersigned,  one  of  the  Common- 
wealth's Justices  of  the  Peace,  Benedict  Wadkins,  aged 
seventy-four  years,  who  being  duly  sworn  on  the  holy 
Evangelists,  [deposes  and  says]  that  he  was  a  resident  of 
the  State  of  North  Carolina,  Rowan  County,  during  the 
Revolution ;  that  in  the  year  1777,  and  1778,  he  knew  there 
Captain  Connelly,  who  then  commanded  as  a  Captain  in 
the  North  Carolina  Cavalry;  and  I  saw  him  in  Salisbury 
also  in  the  summer  of  1779.    He  was  still  commanding 
his  horse  company  in  the  service  of  the  United  States  as  a 
Captain.     Captain  Connelly  then,  I  think,  lived  in  Guil- 
ford [County] .  When  the  army  was  under  General  (xreene 
I  saw  him  with  the  amy  once  at  Hillsboro ;  and  he  was  with 
the  army  in  the  retreat  from  Comwallis.     The  ast  tiine  T 
remember  to  have  seen  him  was  after  the  battle  of  (mil- 
ford-the  next  day.     He  was  then  a  Captain  as  he  m 
1777  and  1778  and  1779.     I  cannot  state  lunv  long  Cai.tain 
Connellv  served,  but  I  know  he  was  comnussionod  as  a 
Captain  of  Cavalry  and  served  in  that  capacity  for  .e  - 
eral  years.     When  I  came  to  Saiuly  [the  I^.g  Sand>  \  al- 


ley]  many  years  since,  I  found  Captain  Connelly  here. 
Since  then  I  have  known  him  well.     I  recollect  to  have 
heard  it  asserted  that  he  was  at  the  Cowpens  when  Tarle- 
ton  got  defeated,  but  as  I  was  not  there,  cannot  testify 
to  that  fact.     The  Tories  were  very  bad  in  the  western 
part  of  the  State,  and  Captain  Connelly  was  appointed  to 
assist  and  keep  them  down.    I  distinctly  remember  that 
he  commanded  one  hundred  men  and  they  were  all  chiefly 
Dutch  soldiers.    And  further  this  deponent  saith  not. 
(Signed)                   Benedict  Wadkins     [Seal] 
[Signed  by  mark] 
Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  Stephen  Hamilton,  Jus- 
tice of  the  Peace,  Floyd  County,  Kentucky,  October  10, 

[State  of  Kentucky  ) 
Floyd  County]  )  ^^ 

The  deposition  of  William  Haney,  aged  seventy-five 
years,  that  in  1781  he  became  acquainted  with  Captain 
Henry  Connelly  of  the  North  Carolina  Light  Horse.  He 
was  then  commanding  as  a  Captain  in  the  North  Carolina 
troops.  When  General  Greene's  army  retreated  into  Vir- 
ginia I  remember  that  he  was  with  the  army.  He  was  in 
the  battle  of  Guilford,  I  well  remember.  I  have  known 
him  many  years  since  the  Revolution,  and  I  know  him  well 
to  be  the  same  man. 

Given  under  my  hand  this  9th  day  of  October,  1833. 
(Signed)  William  Haney 

Sworn  to  before  Shadrach  Preston,  Justice  of  the  Peace, 
Floyd  County,  October  9th,  1833,  and  the  Justice  certifies 
that  Haney  was  a  credible  witness,  as  had  all  justices  with 
the  other  affiants. 

Kentucky,  to  wit. 

The  statement  of  Mesias  Hall,  aged  sixty-five  years,  who 
upon  his  oatli,  states  that  he  is  a  native  of  the  State  of 


North  Carolina,  Wilkes  County.  That  he  recollects  many 
of  the  events  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution.  That  he 
lived  and  was  raised  a  near  neighbor  to  CapUiin  Henry 
Connelly,  Sr.  That  he  always  understood  from  all  per- 
sons that  he  served  in  the  North  Carolina  State  troops 
in  that  capacity  in  which  he  has  stated.  That  he  never 
was  doubted  by  any  person.  He  thinks  one  of  his  broth- 
ers-in-law served  under  him  in  the  Revolution,  who  is  long 
since  dead. 

(Signed)  Mesias  Hall 

[Signed  by  mark] 
Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  John  Friend,  Justice 
of  the  Peace,  Floyd  County,  Kentucky,  who  certifies  that 
Hall  was  a  credible  witness.     No  date. 

The  attorney  who  made  out  the  papers  of  Captain  Con- 
nelly was  Henry  C.  Harris,  of  Prestonsburg.  He  was 
attorney  for  the  family  for  a  generation.  In  a  letter,  in 
the  files  relating  to  the  pension  of  Captain  Connelly  there 
is  a  letter  written  by  Mr.  Harris,  in  which  he  says : 

''The  old  man  is  a  Dutchman,  and  when  I  made  out  his 
statement  I  could  scarcely  understand  everything  he 

His  claim  was  allowed  and  he  was  placed  on  the  Pen- 
sion Roll  of  the  Soldiers  of  the  Revolution  at  one  hundred 
and  fifty  dollars  per  annum,  beginning  4th  March,  183L 

After  his  death  his  widow.  Temperance  Connelly,  was 
granted  a  pension,  and  in  consideration  of  the  inadequate 
allowance  to  Captain  Connelly,  she  was  paid  six  hundred 
dollars  per  annum.  In  making  this  allowance  to  the 
widow  of  Captain  Connelly  a  copy  of  his  declaration  for 
pension  was  sent  to  the  Comptroller's  office  of  North 
Carolina  for  verification.  Concerning  his  sei-vico,  the 
Comptroller  wrote  the  Commissioner  of  Pensions  the 



Raleigh,  North  Carolina. 
Comptroller's  Office 
November  10th,  1851. 


I  have  attentively  examined  the  records  of  this  office 
for  evidence  respecting  the  Revolutionary  services  of 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  and  I  regret  to  say,  unsuccess- 
fully. A  portion  of  the  records  are  undoubtedly  lost.  The 
Capitol  was  burned  about  twenty  years  ago  and  many 
of  the  papers  of  this  office  destroyed. 

In  addition  to  this,  I  find  a  remark  in  the  Journal  of  the 
Commissioners  on  behalf  of  this  State  to  state  the  account 
of  North  Carolina  against  the  United  States,  that  Col. 
(afterwards  General)  W.  R.  Davie  neglected  to  make  a 
return  of  the  Cavalry  forces  of  this  State  under  his  com- 
mand, and  expressing  strongly  the  difficulty  which  they 
experienced  in  making  out  the  accounts  of  the  dragoons. 

The  abstract  of  the  Declaration  which  you  sent  to  me 
contains  the  best  history  of  the  Revolutionary  struggle 
from  1777  to  1781,  in  the  Middle  Counties  of  North  Caro- 
lina which  I  have  ever  seen. 

There  are  not  five  men  in  the  State  who  could  have 
written  so  concise  and  correct  a  histoiy.  I  could  not  have 
done  it,  and  I  have  studied  the  subject  for  ten  years  and 
with  unusual  opportunities  for  inforaiation.  The  names 
of  officers,  places  and  dates  are  all  correct.  Where  did 
he  get  them  from  ?  For  you  must  remember  that  the  His- 
tory of  the  Revolutionai*y  War  in  North  Carolina  has  not 
been  written,  (except  Colonel  Wheeler's  history,  now  in 
press).  Is  not  the  presumption,  then,  powerfully  strong 
thai  Ills  statements  relative  to  his  services  are  also 

T  ho])e  at  some  future  time  to  write  a  historical  Memoir 


of  the  period  embraced  in  tlie  Declaration,  and  will  keep 
your  letter  to  refer  to. 

Very  Respectfully, 

Your  obedient  Sei*vant, 

Wm.  J.  Clarke,  Comptr. 

The  letter  is  now  on  file  with  the  other  papers,  in  the 
Bureau  of  Pensions,  where  I  copied  it. 

Captain  Henry  Connelly  moved  to  Rowan  County,  Ken- 
tucky, about  1835,  but  returned  to  Johnson  County  in  a 
short  time.  He  died  May  7,  1840,  and  is  buried  in  what 
is  known  as  the  William  Rice  Graveyard,  on  Little  Paint 
Creek,  not  far  from  the  old  Litteral  farm,  Johnson  Coun- 
ty. The  headstone  at  his  grave  is  of  sandstone,  and  it 
bears  his  name  and  date  of  birth ;  also  date  of  his  death. 

Captain  Henry  Connelly  was  the  founder  of  the  Con- 
nelly family  in  Eastern  Kentucky.  No  family  ever  had 
a  more  patriotic  or  honorable  head.  He  was  of  strong 
mentality,  as  is  shown  by  his  remarkable  pension  Declar- 
ation, which  he  dictated  at  the  age  of  eighty-one,  and 
which  is  so  highly  praised  by  the  high  State  official  of 
North  Carolina.  It  is  said  that  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  but  that  Church  had  no  organiza- 
tion in  Eastern  Kentucky,  and  there  he  united  with  the 
Baptist  Church.  This  was  the  Primitive  Baptist  Church, 
members  of  which  were  sometimes  called  the  ''Hardshell " 
Baptists.  About  the  year  1834  there  occurred  a  split  in 
this  Church  in  Eastern  Kentucky,  and  at  the  Low  Gap 
Church,  in  what  is  now  Magoffin  County,  on  the  Licking 
River,  three  or  four  miles  below  Salyers\dlle,  Rev.  Wall  is 
Bailey  led  a  secession  which  he  named  the  United  Baptists. 
Captain  Connelly  and  his  descendants  followed  Bailey, 
and  most  of  them  have  been  members  of  the  United  Bap- 
tist Church  down  to  the  present  time. 

The  children  of  Thomas  Connelly  (and  Susan  -loynes 
Connelly)  were: 


Frances,  born  in  North  Carolina,  probably  Wilkes  Coun- 
ty, in  1800.  She  married  Benjamin  Salyer,  who  owned  a 
large  farm  on  Big  Mudlick  Creek,  Johnson  County,  Ken- 
tucky, where  the  road  leaves  that  stream  to  go  to  Flat  Gap. 
There  he  and  his  wife  died,  and  they  are  buried  on  the 
farm.  He  died  of  cancer  on  the  lower  lip.  I  have  seen 
him  often.  His  son,  Hendrix,  lived  on  the  home  farm ;  he 
married  Margaret  Williams.  One  of  the  daughters  mar- 
ried Joseph  Stapleton,  and  another  married  Edward  Sta- 
pleton,  brothers.  A  daughter,  Christiana,  married  John 
Williams,  Esq.,  and  their  son,  Powell  Williams,  is  a  prom- 
inent citizen  of  Johnson  County. 

William,  born  in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina,  in 
1803.     Died  there. 

Constantine,  born  in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina, 
in  1805.  He  married,  in  what  is  now  Johnson  County, 
Kentucky,  Celia  Fairchild,  granddaughter  of  Abind  Fair- 
child,  the  Revolutionary  soldier  later  mentioned  herein. 

Celia,  born  in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina,  in  1806. 
She  married  Dr.  Isaac  Rice,  son  of  Samuel  Rice,  the  first 
settler  on  Little  Mudlick  Creek,  Johnson  County.  She  left 
a  large  family  of  children.  After  her  death  Dr.  Rice  mar- 
ried Malinda,  widow  of  Britton  Blair,  and  daughter  of 
James  Spradlin,  the  pioneer  who  settled  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Twin  Branches,  and  who  was  mentioned  hereinbefore. 

John,  bom  probably  in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina, 
in  1808.  He  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Noble  Blair. 
He  lived  on  the  Lick  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek.  He  had  a 
large  family,  one  of  whom  is  James  Hayden  Conley,  of 
Johnson  County,  a  man  of  culture  and  ability. 

Henry,  born  in  the  Indian  Bottom,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Rockhouse  Fork  of  the  Kentucky  River,  in  1810.  This 
point  is  now  in  Letcher  County.  He  married,  in  what  is 
now  Johnson  County,  Rebecca,  daughter  of  George  Blair. 
He  lived  on  a  large  farm  on  the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie's 
Creek.    He  was  my  grandfather. 


Thomas,  born  in  what  is  now  Johnson  County,  in  1812. 
He  married  a  Miss  Davis,  sister  to  the  first  wife  of  Martin 
R.  Rice,  Esq.,  of  Johnson  County.  He  lived  on  Abbott's 
Creek,  in  Floyd  County,  where  his  descendants  are  yet  to 
be  found. 

Nancy,  born  in  what  is  now  Johnson  County,  in  1813. 
She  married  Asa  Fairchild,  son  of  the  Revohitionar}'  sol- 
dier to  be  later  mentioned.  They  lived  and  died  on  a 
branch  of  the  Main  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek,  the  first  con- 
siderable branch  from  the  west  side  to  flow  in  above  the 
mouth  of  the  Twin  Branches.  They  left  a  large  family, 
some  of  whom  moved  to  Lebanon,  Ohio. 

Susan,  bom  in  what  is  now  Johnson  County,  in  1815. 
She  married  John,  the  son  of  Noble  Blair.  He  was  a 
millwright  and  was  a  fine  workman.  He  built  a  mill  in 
the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek,  on  his  farm,  to  which 
I  have  often  gone.     They  left  a  large  family. 


The  Fairchild  Family,  of  Eastern  Kentuckj%  was  found- 
ed by  Abind  Fairchild,  a  Revolutionary  soldier,  born  in 
Westmoreland  County,  Virginia,  but  from  North  Carolina 
to  Kentucky.  His  service  as  a  Revolutionary  soldier  was 
in  North  Carolina.  In  1902  I  made  a  copy  of  the  papers 
in  his  pension  case ;  these  papers  are  on  file  in  the  Bureau 
of  Pensions,  and  are  as  follows : 

State  of  Kentucky   ) 
County  of  Floyd       )  ^^ 

On  this  18th  day  of  February,  1834,  personally  appeared 
in  open  court  before  the  Justices  of  the  Floyd  County 
Court  now  sitting,  Abind  Fairchild,  a  resident  of  Ken- 
tucky, in  the  county  of  Floyd,  aged  seventy-one  years,  who 
being  first  duly  sworn  according  to  hiw,  doth  on  liis  oath 
make  the  following  declaration  in  order  to  obtain  the 


benefit  of  the  provision  made  by  the  act  of  Congress  of  the 
7th  of  June,  1832. 

That  he  entered  the  service  of  the  United  States  under 
the  following  named  officers  and  served  as  herein  stated. 
He  resided  in  Wilkes  County,  in  the  State  of  North  Caro- 
lina, when  he  first  entered  the  service  as  a  drafted  soldier 
on  or  about  the  10th  day  of  October,  in  the  year  1778,  in  a 
company  of  North  Carolina  Militia  of  which  John  Bob- 
bins had  been  appointed  Captain.  He  met  his  company  at 
Wilkesborough,  in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina,  and 
Captain  Bobbins  not  joining  us,  William  Gillery,  the 
Lieutenant  of  the  company,  took  the  command  and  com- 
manded the  company  throughout  the  whole  tour.  Wil- 
liam Sutton,  the  Ensign,  acted  as  Lieutenant,  and  the 
Sergeant,  whose  name,  to  the  best  of  his  recollection,  was 
James  Lewis,  acted  as  Ensign. 

From  Wilkesborough  we  marched  down  to  Salisbury,  in 
Kowan  County,  North  Carolina,  where  we  lay  three  or 
four  days,  and  then  marched  out  to  the  town  of  Charlotte, 
in  Mecklenberg  County,  where  we  did  not  halt,  but  march- 
ed directly  on  to  Camden,  in  South  Carolina,  where  we 
halted  and  staid  about  a  week.  From  Camden  we 
marched  and  crossed  Santee  River  at  Nelson's  Ferry,  at 
the  mouth  of  Eutaw  Spring  Branch.  At  Nelson's  Feny, 
where  we  lay  one  night  only,  we  took  the  right-hand  road 
and  marched  on  to  Dorchester  and  came  near  to  Peros- 
burg,  tlie  headquarters  of  the  North  Carolina  troops.  The 
South  Carolina  troops  were  there  when  we  arrived.  We 
encamped  about  a  half  mile  from  the  town  where  we  re- 
mained about  six  weeks.  Colonel  John  Brevard  was  the 
coiiimanding  Colonel  of  the  regiment  to  which  his  com- 
pany belonged.  From  the  encampment  near  Perosburg, 
we  marched  up  the  Savannah  Biver  to  the  Three  Sisters, 
whore  we  staid  but  a  short  time,  when  Captain  Gillery 
and  his  company  left  the  other  troops  and  we  marched 
<lown  the  river  about  three  miles  to  a  place  called  the 


White  House,  where  we  went  as  garrison  to  guard  a  ferry 
on  the  Savannah  River.  But  a  few  days  after,  his  com- 
pany left  the  Three  Sisters.  General  Lincoln  having  un- 
der his  command  about  six  thousand  regulars  (as  he,  this 
applicant,  was  informed)  came  on  to  the  Three  Sisters  and 
remained  there  but  a  few  days.  During  our  stay  at  the 
White  House,  Colonel  Syms  having  under  his  command 
about  two  hundred  Light  Horse  troo])s,  came  there  and 
encamped  with  us  one  night,  and  next  morning  left  us. 
Every  morning  during  our  stay  at  the  White  House  a 
Corporal  and  six  men  were  sent  to  the  ferry  as  sentinels 
where  they  remained  until  they  were  relieved  by  another 
Corporal  and  six  men  more.  After  remaining  at  the 
Wliite  House,  to  the  best  of  his  recollection,  about  six 
weeks,  his  company  was  marched  around  a  swamp  called 
the  Black  Swamp,  lying  near  the  river,  to  a  place  called 
the  Turkey  Hill,  where  the  company  was  discharged,  on 
the  10th  of  April,  1779.  His  discharge  was  signed  by 
Captain  or  Lieutenant  William  Gillery. 

From  the  10th  of  April,  1779,  to  the  1st  of  June,  1780, 
he  was  out  as  a  volunteer  on  short  excursions,  receiving 
orders  from  Colonel  Benjamin  Cleveland,  in  what  direc- 
tion to  proceed  in  pursuit  of  the  Tories,  and  if  the  Tories 
should  be  too  strong,  to  return  and  give  information  to 
the  Colonel,  so  that  he  could  go  or  send  a  force  sufficient 
to  take  them.  In  these  he  was  accompanied,  generally, 
by  ten,  fifteen,  or  twenty  men  detached  from  the  men 
under  command  of  Colonel  Cleveland.  In  excursions  of 
this  kind  and  sometimes  in  service  under  Colonel  Cleve- 
land, with  the  other  troops  of  the  regiment,  he  was  in  ser- 
vice a  few  days  over  twelve  months  between  the  10th  of 
April,  1779,  and  the  first  of  June,  1780,  in  the  counties  of 
Wilkes,  Burke,  and  Rutherford,  but  mostly  in  Burke. 

In  the  last  of  June  or  first  of  July,  1780,  lie  went  as  a 
volunteer  and  joined  Colonel  Cleveland  at  Wilkesborough, 
in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina.     H<'  was  i.lacrd  in  a 


company  by  Colonel  Cleveland,  the  names  of  none  of  the 
officers  of  which  he  can  recollect.  Colonel  Cleveland  had 
under  his  command  about  two  hundred  men.  We  marched 
on  to  Eamsour's  about  ten  o'clock,  A.  M.,  the  day  of  the 
month  not  recollected,  but  he  thinks  it  was  between  the 
5th  and  10th  of  July,  1780.  When  we  arrived  the  battle 
between  the  Mecklenberg  troops  and  the  Tories  was  over, 
and  the  Tories  had  been  defeated.  He  then  understood 
that  in  this  battle  about  one  hundred  Tories  were  slain 
and  two  hundred  taken  prisoners.  From  Eamsour's  he 
returned  home  to  his  residence,  in  Wilkes  County,  having 
been  in  service  about  two  weeks. 

He  next  went  into  the  service  as  a  volunteer  in  a  com- 
pany of  which  William  Jackson  was  Captain.  The  names 
of  the  other  company  officers  he  does  not  now  recollect. 
Colonel  Benjamin  Cleveland  was  his  commanding  Colonel. 
He  joined  his  company  at  Wilkesborough,  in  Wilkes 
County,  on  or  about  the  1st  day  of  September,  1780.  From 
Wilkesborough  we  marched  on  to  Krider's  Fort,  in  Burke 
County,  North  Carolina,  where  we  remained  two  or  three 
weeks,  and  then  marched  up  and  crossed  the  Catawba 
River  at  Greenleaf  Ford,  near  Morgantown.  From  there 
we  marched  to  the  head  of  Cane  Creek,  a  branch  of  Little 
Broad  River.  Between  Greenleaf  Ford  and  the  head  of 
Cane  Creek  we  fell  in  with  the  Virginia  troops  under  com- 
mand of  Colonel  Campbell.  From  here  we  marched  to 
Colonel  Walker's  old  place  (then  so  called)  on  Little 
Broad  River,  and  halted  but  a  very  short  time,  when 
Colonel  Campbell,  whose  troops  were  all  horsemen,  and 
Colonel  Cleveland,  after  raising  all  the  horses  he  could, 
marched  on  with  what  mounted  soldiers  there  were,  and 
left  the  footmen,  about  one  hundred  in  number,  to  follow 
on  with  all  possible  expedition.  From  Colonel  Walker's 
old  place,  he,  this  applicant,  marched  on  under  command 
of  Captain  William  Jackson,  and  crossed  Broad  River 
and  wont  down  by  Buck  Creek  and  passed  a  place  called 


the  Cowpens.  We  then  passed  down  Buck  Creek  some 
distance  and  left  Buck  Creek  and  crossed  Broad  River 
again  at  Cherokee  Ford.  We  then  niarclied  on  to  King's 
Mountain  -  arrived  the  next  day  after  the  battle,  a  little 
after  dark,  at  the  encampment  of  the  American  forces, 
about  two  miles  from  the  battle  ground.  Colonel  Fergu- 
son, the  commander  of  the  British  troops  at  King's  Moun- 
tain, was  killed  and  the  troops  under  his  command  defeat- 
ed, and,  to  the  best  of  his  recollection,  about  —  hundred 
of  them  taken  prisoners.  The  battle  was  fought,  to  the 
best  of  his  recollection,  on  the  4th  or  5th  of  October,  1780. 

From  King's  Mountain  we  marched  back  to  Colonel 
Walker's  old  place  and  then  turned  back  towards  King's 
Mountain  again,  to  Vickerstaff  [see  Ki)i{j's  Mountain  and 
its  Heroes,  by  Draper,  page  328- W.  E,  C]  where  we  re- 
mained about  two  days.  Here  ten  of  the  Tory  prisoners 
were  sentenced  to  be  hanged.  Nine  of  them  were  ac- 
cordingly executed,  and  the  other  escaped.  From  Vicker- 
staff we  again  marched  to  Colonel  Walker's  old  place. 
Here  this  applicant  and  six  or  seven  other  soldiers  were 
left  with  directions  from  Colonel  Cleveland  to  bring  on  a 
wagon  which  he  had  taken  at  the  battle  of  King's  Moun- 
tain, and  the  other  troops  marched  on  and  left  us.  We 
went  on  towards  Wilkes  County,  and  on  Cane  Creek  we 
met  four  or  five  men  sent  back  to  assist  us  with  the  wagon. 
We  then  went  on  to  Wilkes  County  with  the  wagon,  and 
he  received  a  discharge  signed  by  Captain  Jackson  for  a 
three  months'  tour.  The  time  when  he  received  this  dis- 
charge he  does  not  recollect,  but  he  is  able  to  state  posi- 
tively that  he  was  in  the  service  three  months  on  this  tour. 

He  next  went  out  as  a  volunteer  under  John  Cleveland, 
a  young  man,  the  son  of  Colonel  Cleveland,  who  command- 
ed as  Captain.  He  met  the  company  at  Wilkcsborough 
on  or  about  the  3rd  of  March,  1781,  and  we  then  marched 
down  (there  being  about  forty  of  us  under  Ca])tain  Cleve- 
land) to  the  old  Trading  Fort  on  the  Va<lkin  K*iv«>r,  in 


Kowan,  and  returned  from  this  expedition  about  the  25th 
of  April,  1781,  and  received  no  written  discharge,  to  the 
best  of  his  recollection. 

He  has  no  documentary  evidence,  and  he  knows  of  no 
person  whose  testimony  he  can  procure  who  can  testify 
as  to  his  services. 

Sworn  to  and  subscribed  the  day  and  year  aforesaid. 
(Signed)  Abind  Fairchild. 

The  Court  then  propounded  to  the  said  Abind  Fairchild 
the  following  interrogatories,  to  wit : 

1.  Where  and  in  what  year  were  you  born? 

Ans.  I  was  born  in  the  year  1762  in  the  County  of 
Westmoreland  and  State  of  Virginia. 

2.  Have  j^ou  any  record  of  your  age,  and  if  so,  where  is 

Ans.  I  have  no  record  of  my  age.  My  father  had  a 
record  of  my  age,  but  what  has  become  of  it  since  his  death 
I  do  not  know. 

3.  Where  were  you  living  when  called  into  service, 
where  have  you  lived  since  the  Revolutionary  War,  and 
where  do  you  now  live? 

Ans.  I  lived  in  Wilkes  County,  North  Carolina,  until 
about  twenty-five  years  ago,  when  I  removed  to  Floyd 
County,  Kentucky,  where  I  now  reside. 

4.  How  were  you  called  into  service ;  were  you  drafted, 
did  you  volunteer,  or  were  you  a  substitute,  and  if  a  sub- 
stitute, for  whom  ? 

Ans.  In  my  first  tour  of  service  I  went  as  a  drafted 
soldier,  and  in  all  my  subsequent  service,  as  a  volunteer. 
I  never  was  a  substitute. 

5.  State  the  names  of  some  of  the  regular  officers  who 
were  with  the  troops  when  you  served  such  Continental 
and  Militia  regiments  as  you  can  recollect,  and  the  general 
circumstances  of  your  sei'vices. 

Ans.  These  are  as  fully  set  forth  in  the  body  of  the 
declaration  as  I  am  able  to  do  from  my  recollection. 


6.  Did  you  ever  receive  a  discharge  from  tlie  service, 
and  if  so,  by  whom  was  it  signed,  and  what  has  become  of 

Ans.  I  never  received  but  two  discharges  that  I  recol- 
lect of.  The  first  was  given  by  Captain  William  Gillery, 
and  the  last  by  Captain  William  Jackson,  both  of  wliich 
were  lost  many  years  ago,  but  in  what  manner  they  were 
lost  I  do  not  know  or  recollect. 

7.  State  the  names  of  persons  to  whom  you  are  known 
in  your  present  neighborhood,  and  who  can  testify  as  to 
your  character  for  veracity  and  the  belief  of  your  services 
as  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution. 

Ans.  I  will  name  the  Rev*^  Ezekiel  Stone  and  John 

The  affidavits  of  Ezekiel  Stone  and  John  Colvin  are  at- 
tached to  the  declaration,  and  the  Court  certifies  that 
they  are  credible  witnesses.  The  Court  also  certifies  that 
Abind  Fairchild  is  a  reputable  citizen  and  that  it  is  believ- 
ed that  he  was  in  the  Revolutionar\"  War. 

The  claim  for  pension  was  allowed,  and  his  name  was 
inscribed  on  the  Roll  of  Kentucky  at  the  rate  of  $40  per 
annum,  to  commence  on  the  4th  day  of  March,  1831.  Cer- 
tificate was  issued  the  27th  day  of  March,  1834,  and  sent 
to  Hon.  Richard  M.  Johnson. 

Fairchild,  the  Revolutionary  soldier,  moved  from  Wilkes 
County,  North  Carolina,  to  what  is  now  Jolmson  County, 
Kentucky,  in  the  year  of  1808,  and  settled  on  Bii;  Paint 
Creek.  His  home  was  near  the  Fish  Trap  Meeting  1  louse, 
a  famous  Baptist  Church  building  some  six  miles  from 
the  town  of  Paintsville.  I  have  not  a  list  of  the  names  of 
his  children,  but  I  know  that  many  of  his  descendants  live 
in  Johnson,  Floyd,  Magoffin,  and  other  counties  of  ?iastern 
Kentucky.  One  daughter  married  John  Colvin.  men- 
tioned in  the  pension  ])apers.  Two  sons  of  John  (\)lvin 
were  in  the  Fourteenth  Kentuckv  Regiment,  rnfantry.  in 


the  Civil  War  -  Jeliisa  and  Abind  -  in  Company  I.  Abind 
was  called  ''Bide"  Colvin.  I  knew  them  and  saw  them 
while  their  company  was  stationed  at  Salyersville.  The 
Colvin  Family,  in  Eastern  Kentucky  was  founded  by  John 
Colvin,  and  it  numbers  many  families  now-  the  McDowells 
and  others.  These  are  all  descended  from  Abind  Fair- 

The  eldest  child  of  Abind  Fairchild  was  Mary.  She 
married  George  Blair,  my  great-grandfather,  and  they 
left  a  large  family. 


There  is  no  more  honorable  or  distinguished  family  in 
America  than  the  Blair  Family.  It  was  founded  in  Amer- 
ica by  two  brothers.  Rev.  Samuel  Blair  and  Rev.  John 
Blair.  They  were  eminent  Presbyterian  ministers,  and 
the  founders  of  the  Fagg's  Manor  school  which  was  the 
beginning  of  Princeton  University.  Samuel  was  pastor 
of  the  Old  South  Church,  Boston,  for  some  years. 

Some  of  the  distinguished  descendants  of  these  pioneer 
brothers  are  mentioned  here: 

Montgomery  Blair. 

Francis  Preston  Blair,  Junior,  the  first  Attorney-Gen- 
eral of  New  Mexico,  Brigadier-General  of  Union  troops 
in  the  Civil  War,  and  United  States  Senator  from  Mis- 
souri ;  his  statue  stands  in  the  Hall  of  Fame,  Washington, 
beside  that  of  Benton. 

John  I.  Blair,  the  railroad  builder  and  millionaire,  of 
New  Jersey. 

Henry  W.  Blair,  late  United  States  Senator  from  New 
Hampshire.  In  discussing  the  family  and  its  descendants 
with  me  in  May,  1910,  he  told  me  that  his  sister  had  spent 
much  time  studying  the  early  history  and  origin  of  the 
Blair  family.  She  found  that  a  colony  went  from  an 
ancient  town  in  France  called  Belaire  and  settled  in  Scot- 


land.  The  colonists  were  known  there  by  the  name  of  the 
town  from  which  they  had  migrated ;  they  were  absorbed 
by  the  Scotch  and  the  name  of  their  ancient  habitat  given 
them  as  a  family  name -^eZaire-  and  finally  Blair.  There 
are  other  origins  of  the  family  and  name  given,  but  this 
has  historic  support  and  also  probability,  and  it  nnist  be 
admitted  as  the  most  reasonable. 

Descendants  of  these  brothers  settled  in  Southwestern 
Virginia,  and  from  these  descended  James  Blair,  the  first 
Attorney  General  of  Kentucky,  and  whose  son,  Francis 
Preston  Blair,  Senior,  was  editor  of  the  Washington  Globe 
and  political  adviser  of  President  Andrew  Jackson. 
George  Blair  came  of  this  family,  and  was  born  in  Lee 
County,  Virginia.  He  and  his  brother  Noble  moved  to 
Kentucky  when  young  men,  settling  in  what  is  now  John- 
son County.  They  lived  for  some  time  near  the  mouth 
of  Big  Mudlick  Creek.  Later,  George  Blair  bought  an 
extensive  tract  of  land  across  Big  Paint  Creek  from  where 
Paintsville  was  afterwards  built.  He  erected  a  largo 
hewn-log  house  on  the  bluff  opposite  where  the  water-mill 
was  erected  by  John  Stafford,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Black- 
berry Branch.  This  he  sold  to  the  Staffords,  after  which 
he  and  his  brother  Noble  bought  all  of  the  Middle  Fork 
of  Jennie's  Creek,  George  taking  the  upper  portion  of  the 
creek.  Near  the  head  of  this  stream,  about  seven  miles 
from  Paintsville,  he  erected  a  large  house  of  hewn  logs, 
where  he  lived  until  too  old  to  look  after  a  home,  when  he 
went  to  live  with  his  youngest  child,  Asa,  in  whose  house 
he  died,  on  the  old  John  Rice  farm,  on  the  Main  Branch 
of  Jennie's  Creek.  I  was  present  at  his  funeral.  A  year 
before  his  death  I  taught  my  first  school  in  that  district, 
and  much  of  the  time  I  boarded  with  my  Uncle  Asa,  and 
talked  much  with  Grandfather  Blair.  He  was  a  strong 
character,  rugged  and  independent.  He  was,  in  his  young 
manhood,  of  immense  strength,  and  he  loved  the  rude 
sports  of  pioneer  days  and  always  particiapted  in  them. 


His  people  had  been  Presbyterians,  but  no  organization 
of  that  faith  being  found  in  Eastern  Kentucky,  he  united 
with  the  Primitive  Baptists,  and  he  followed  Rev.  Wallis 
Bailey  in  the  secession  which  resulted  in  the  United  Bap- 
tists of  Eastern  Kentucky.  Though  a  strict  member  of 
the  church  and  an  honored  one,  he  would  sometimes  drink 
enough  whiskey  to  make  him  boastful  and  "  funny, "  which 
he  always  repented  in  great  humiliation  after  the  castiga- 
tion  administered  by  his  wife  in  the  form  of  curtain  lec- 
ture, and  which,  he  has  admitted  to  me,  he  dreaded  more 
than  any  punishment  that  could  have  been  inflicted  on 
him.  The  children  of  George  Blair  and  Mary  Fairchild 
Blair  were: 

1.  John.  Called,  b}^  way  of  nickname  "Goodwood." 
I  do  not  now  know  whom  he  married.  I  have  been  at  his 
house  when  he  lived  on  the  Louis  Power  Farm,  at  the  ford 
of  the  Licking  River,  where  he  once  rescued  Mr.  Power 
from  a  watery  grave. 

2.  Levi.  Married  a  Miss  Cantrell,  whose  family  lived 
on  the  headwaters  of  Big  Paint  Creek,  He  was  a  shoe- 
maker, and  lived  all  his  later  life  at  the  head  of  a  branch 
of  Barnett's  Creek.  He  had  a  large  family.  I  have  often 
seen  him,  having  been  at  his  house  many  times.  He  was 
a  sharp  trader  in  horses  and  cattle,  very  thrifty,  and  of 
keen  wit.  Of  these  traits  in  him  I  could  repeat  a  number 
of  stories.     His  wife  was  a  hypochondriac. 

o.  Britton.  Married  Malinda,  daughter  of  James 
Spradlin,  the  pioneer  who  settled  at  the  mouth  of  the  Twin 
Branches.  He  owned  a  large  farm  opposite  the  house  of 
his  father-in-law,  where  he  died  and  is  buried.  After 
his  death  his  widow  married  Dr.  Isaac  Rice.  I  have  often 
been  at  their  house.  Aunt  Malinda  was  a  good  motherly 
woman  when  I  knew  her,  and  still  retained  traces  of  the 
great  beauty  for  which  she  was  noted  in  her  younger  days. 
Fiu'le  Isaac  was  cross  and  disagreeable  at  home,  being 
particularly  aggressive  and  sometimes  offensive  in  argu- 


ment  on  religion.  Aunt  Malinda  often  requested  iiu'  to 
come  and  remain  Sundays,  so  that  Uncle  Isaac  would  talk 
and  argTie  with  me  rather  than  with  her,  upon  wliich  occa- 
sions I  was  furnished  with  a  surfeit  of  cake,  pie,  and  fried 
cliicken  as  an  inducement  to  come  again. 

4.  Washington,  Called  always  "Watt."  He  mar- 
ried a  daughter  of  James  Spradlin,  the  pioneer,  and  lived 
on  the  headwaters  of  the  Upper  Twin  Branch.  1  was 
often  at  his  house,  having  been  always  veiy  fond  of  him. 
He  was  a  genius,  intellectually  the  equal  of  any  man  I  ever 
knew,  barring  none.  He  was  a  sort  of  rustic  Samuel  .John- 
son, whom,  indeed,  he  resembled  in  appearance  as  well  as 
in  mental  traits.  He  always  ate  with  his  hat  on  his  head, 
presiding  at  the  meals  of  the  family  much  as  a  sovereign 
wearing  his  crown.  He  was  brusque  and  contentious,  of- 
ten abrupt  and  overbearing,  imperious,  but  he  had  a  kind 
heart,  and  he  was  very  fond  of  children.  He  exacted  im- 
plicit obedience  of  his  children  even  after  they  were  mar- 
ried and  gone  to  themselves,  saying  that  such  was  taught 
in  the  Bible.  He  was,  indeed,  a  patriarch,  surrounded  by 
Ills  large  family  of  married  children,  all  paying  him  a  sort 
of  homage.  He  was  quaint  and  droll,  and  his  conversa- 
tion was  eloquent  and  as  pleasing  as  any  I  ever  heard,  or 
saw  in  literature.  I  have  sat  for  hours  wrapped  in  a  sort 
of  enchantment  by  his  fine  discourses  delivered  always 
at  his  own  fireside,  for  he  never  talked  nnich  in  i)ubli(' 
His  home  was  liis  castle. 

5.  James.  I  do  not  now  recall  whom  he  married.  He 
moved  to  Minnesota  when  I  was  but  a  child,  and  fivuii 
thence  he  went  to  Washington  Territory. 

6.  Rebecca.  Married  Henry  Connelly,  my  gran«l 
father.  She  was  a  woman  of  fine  mental  endowment,  ver>' 
affectionate,  thrifty,  manufacturing  in  her  home  the  finest 
cloth  made  in  Eastern  Kentucky;  and  in  this  art  her 
daughters  also  excelled.  I  remember  that  she  was  greatly 
interested  in  the  improvement  of  the  breeds  of  cattle. 


horses,  hogs,  and  fowls.  Of  all  these  my  grandfather 
had  good  specimens  on  his  farm.  She  talked  much,  I  re- 
call, of  orchards  and  the  cultivation  of  crops,  especially 
of  cotton  and  flax.  Her  flock  of  sheep  was  her  pride.  I 
remember  how  white  and  clean  they  always  seemed  to  me, 
and  how  she  went  among  them  and  was  followed  by  them 
seemingly  in  love  and  affection.  No  man  ever  had  a  better 
ancestor,  and  I  remember  her  with  reverence.  She  died 
of  tyiDhoid  about  the  year  1861,  and  she  is  buried  on  the 
old  homestead. 

7.  William.  Also  married  a  daughter  of  James  Sprad- 
lin,  the  pioneer.  Her  name  was  Sarah.  He  was  a  very 
intelligent  man  and  a  Baptist  minister.  He  built  a  mill 
in  the  Licking  River,  just  above  the  present  town  of  Sal- 
yersville,  where  he  lived  until  the  State  bought  it  and  re- 
moved it  under  the  impression  that  the  stream  could  be 
made  navigable.  Then  he  settled  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Rockhouse,  in  Johnson  County,  where  he  died.  He  was 
rather  impulsive,  and  I  could  relate  some  amusing  inci- 
dents this  quality  developed  during  the  Civil  War.  Aunt 
Sally,  so  we  called  her,  was  an  excellent  woman,  but  of  an 
excitable  temperament.  After  her  death  he  married 
Edith  Montgomery. 

8.  Noble.  Married  a  Miss  Stambaugh.  Lived  at  the 
extreme  head  of  the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek.  Left 
a  large  family. 

9.  Clarinda.  Married  John  Stambaugh,  supposed  in 
Johnson  County  to  have  been  the  most  polite  and  well- 
bred  man  in  the  whole  world.  His  wife's  society  became 
irksome  to  him,  and  he  lived  for  a  time  openly  with  an- 
other woman,  whom  he  believed  more  compatible  and 
more  ''polite."  In  his  last  sickness,  however,  her  polite- 
ness did  not  prevent  her  forsaking  him,  when  his  wife 
sought  him,  took  him  home,  and  cared  for  him  until  his 
death.  She  never  married  again.  They  had  one  child,  a 
son,  Buchanan  Stambaugh. 


10.  Mary.     I  can  not  now  recall  whom  she  married. 

11.  Asa.  Married  Mahala,  daughter  of  Josiah  Sprad- 
lin,  and  granddaughter  of  James  Spradlin,  the  pioneer. 
Two  children,  Alamander  and  Ellen. 

Henrj'  Connelly  and  Eebecca  Blair  were  married  in  1830. 
They  were  given  by  her  father  a  large  farm  on  the  head 
waters  of  the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek.  On  this 
farm  they  lived  until  their  deaths.  They  were  members 
of  the  Baptist  Church,  United  Baptists.  Services  were 
often  held  in  their  home,  upon  which  occasions  the  whole 
countryside  were  invited  to  remain  for  dinner.  I  well 
remember  these  feasts,  though  I  was  often  ke]it  busy 
caring  for  the  horses  of  the  guests  until  I  thought  I  should 
starve  to  death.  My  grandfather  was  a  large  man,  but 
without  any  tendency  to  corpulency,  and  he  was  one  of  the 
strongest  men  in  that  country.  I  remember  his  feats  of 
physical  strength,  perfonned  in  clearing  lands,  erecting 
houses,  in  conflict  with  the  wild  beasts  of  the  forest.  1  le 
was  also  of  fine  mind,  though  this  was  of  a  practical  turn, 
and  he  never  cared  much  for  books.  He  was  a  fine  hunter, 
and  a  collection  of  his  adventures  would  make  an  inter- 
esting volume.  When  he  was  but  six  years  old  he  went 
into  the  woods  a  few  rods  from  the  house.  There  he  saw 
a  large  bear  seize  his  pet  pig.  He  ran  to  the  house  and  got 
his  father's  rifle  and  hurried  back,  followed  by  his  mother. 
But  before  she  came  up  he  had  shot  the  bear  through  the 
head  and  saved  his  pet,  which  was  dreadfully  torn,  but 
survived.  On  another  occasion  he  went  into  the  woods 
with  his  elder  brother,  Constantine,  who,  while  l)usy  about 
some  matter,  gave  him  the  gim  to  hold.  The  elder  liroth- 
er  was  startled  to  hear  the  report  of  the  gun,  and  called 
out  roughly  to  know  what  he  was  doing.  '*I  shot  a  wolf," 
said  grandfather.  And  there  was  the  wolf  snarling  and 
struggling  in  its  death  throes.  He  was  but  seven.  It 
was  necessary  for  the  person  who  killed  a  wolf  to  appear 


before  the  County  Court  to  get  the  bounty  paid  for  the 
scalp.  This  was  the  cause  of  his  first  visit  to  a  town,  he 
having  to  go  with  his  father  to  Prestonsburg,  where  his 
appearance  in  Court  caused  so  much  wonder,  when  his 
business  was  known,  that  it  was  impressed  vividly  on  his 
mind.  On  another  occasion,  when  he  was  no  more  than 
seven,  some  young  men  were  chasing  a  deer  with  hounds. 
He  believed  the  deer  would  run  through  a  field  just  below 
the  house.  He  took  his  father's  rifle  and  concealed  him- 
self in  a  hollow  stump  in  the  field.  Soon  the  deer  came  by, 
as  he  had  judged,  and  he  shot  it  dead,  though  it  was  run- 
ning at  full  speed.  This  was  when  his  father  lived  at  the 
mouth  of  Mill  Creek.  His  good  markmanship  once  caused 
him  to  receive  a  severe  whipping  from  his  mother.  He 
made  himself  a  pop-gun  of  the  common  elder.  One  of  the 
family  flock  of  sheep,  which  had  been  driven  from  North 
Carolina,  was  walking  along  one  of  the  logs  hauled  in  to  be 
used  in  building  the  residence,  eating  the  moss  from  its 
bark.  He  shot  this  sheep  with  his  pop-gun.  The  "wad" 
struck  the  sheep  just  back  of  the  "knuckle"  of  the  front 
leg,  where  there  is  no  wool.  The  sheep  fell  from  the  log 
as  though  dead,  for  the  ball  had  struck  just  over  the  heart. 
But  by  the  time  he  was  soundly  flogged,  the  sheep  got  to 
its  feet  and  ran  away. 

Henry  Connelly  was  a  good  citizen,  esteemed  by  all  who 
knew  him.  I  could  relate  an  incident  in  his  life  which 
showed  his  good  judgment,  his  justice,  his  humanity.  It 
saved  a  man  from  a  life  of  crime  and  made  him  an  honest 
citizen,  but  as  his  children  are  yet  living  I  will  not  write  it. 

The  children  of  Henry  Connelly  and  his  wife  Rebecca 
Blair,  were  as  follows: 

1.  Constantine.  My  father.  Bom  December  5,  1831. 
Married  Rebecca  Jane  McCarty.  Lived  on  the  Wolf  Pen 
Branch  of  the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie's  Creek,  where  I  was 
bom.    Moved  to  Salyersville,  Kentucky. 

2.  Celia.     Died  unmarried. 


3.  Thomas.     Married  his  cousin,  Connelly. 

Died  at  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  AVar,  leaving  one  son. 

4.  William.  Born  in  1835.  Was  in  the  Fourteenth 
Kentucky  Cavalry,  and  died  at  Lexington,  Kentucky,  of 
typhoid  while  in  the  service.  I  remember  that  Grami 
father  went  there  with  a  wagon  drawn  by  oxen  and  brought 
the  body  home,  stopping  one  night  at  our  home  in  Salyers- 
ville,  where  the  friends  and  companions  of  Uncle  William 
gathered  to  mourn  his  death.  He  was  umiiarrici],  and  liis 
genial  nature,  cordial  manner,  bright  conversation,  love 
of  manly  athletics,  made  him  a  favorite  over  a  wide  range 
of  country.  In  youth  he  met  with  an  accident,  cutting  olT 
the  fingers  of  his  left  hand  while  making  a  wedge  to  split 

5.  Mahala.  Born  in  1837.  Married  William,  son  oi' 
Josiah  Spradlin,  hereinbefore  mentioned.  They  had  two 
children,  Clarinda  and  Mantford.  After  the  death  of  her 
first  husband  she  manied  Nathaniel  Picklesimer.  Xo 
children  by  second  marriage. 

6.  Clarinda.  Born  in  1839.  Married  Jeremiah  Hack- 
worth,  a  soldier  in  the  Fourteenth  Kentucky  Infantry. 
Lived  on  the  headwaters  of  Middle  Creek.  Left  a  large 

7.  Mary.  Born  in  1841.  Married  Farmer  May.  but 
died  shortly  after  marriage. 

8.  Lucina.     Born  in  1843.     Married May. 

9.  John.  Born  in  1845.  Married  Matilda,  daughter 
of  Morgan  Long,  of  North  Carolina,  who  live<l  a  short  time 
in  Paintsville  after  the  Civil  War.  He  was  the  largest 
man  in  Johnson  County,  but  not  in  the  least  corjiulent. 
He  was  above  six  feet,  probably  six  feet  four,  broad  shoul- 
ders, and  of  fine  foim.  He  was  a  man  of  immense 
strength.     Lives  now  in  Paintsville. 

10.  Amanda.    Born  in  1849.     Married May. 

11.  Catherine.  Born  in  185L  Married  Andrew  .1.. 
son  of  Martin  R.  Rice. 


12.  Cynthia.  Born  in  1855.  Married  Lewis  F.  Cau- 
dill.  He  was  a  Baptist  minister.  Both  still  living.  Have 
a  large  family. 


The  Burke  Family  is  of  Norman  origin,  and  with  the 
Butlers  and  Fitzgeralds,  is  ranked  with  the  most  distin- 
guished of  the  Norman-Irish.  The  ancestor  of  the  Irish 
Burkes  was  William  Fitz-Adelm  de  Burgo,  who  accom- 
panied King  Henry  the  Second  to  Ireland  as  his  steward, 
in  1171.  The  family  was  related  by  blood  to  that  of  Wil- 
liam the  Conqueror.  Two  of  them,  Robert  de  Burgo  and 
William,  his  half-brother,  were  with  him  at  the  invasion 
of  England,  and  the  former  was  afterwards  created  Earl 
of  Cornwall.  In  the  reign  of  King  John  the  Burkes  ob- 
tained large  possessions  in  Connaught  through  the  rivalry 
and  quarrels  of  the  0  'Connors.  Becoming  powerful,  they 
subsequently  renounced  their  allegiance  to  the  kings  of 
England,  and  adopted  the  Irish  language,  dress,  and  cus- 
toms, and  compelled  all  the  other  familie'fe  of  Norman 
origin  in  Connaught  to  do  likewise.- Genealogy  of  Irish 
Families,  by  James  Rooney,  page  458. 

William  Burke  was  a  private  in  the  famous  Cavaliy 
command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia, 
in  the  Revolutionary  War.  This  was  the  famous  Light 
Horse  Troop  of  ''Light  Horse  Harry."  In  our  family 
there  are  many  traditions  of  his  adventures,  his  prowess, 
his  hair-breadth  escapes.  Once  he  was  captured  and  con- 
demned to  death  as  a  spy,  but  was  saved  by  being  allowed 
to  escape  in  the  night  before  he  was  to  be  executed  by  a 
brother  Freemason,  the  acquaintance  of  whom  he  had  in 
some  way  made,  and  who  was  his  guard. 

After  the  war  he  came  to  what  is  now  Scott  County, 
Virginia,  where  he  died  about  the  year  1795.  Among  his 
children  was  a  son,  John,  who  migrated  to  Kentucky  with 


a  colony  of  Methodists  led  by  Rev.  Alexis  Howes,  founder 
of  the  Howes  Family  in  Eastern  Kentucky.  John  Burke 
had  a  daughter,  Lydia,  born  in  Scott  County,  Viri^nnia. 
I  have  mislaid  the  date  of  her  birth.  John  Burke  settled 
on  the  Rockhouse  Fork  of  Big  Paint  Creek,  where  he 
bought  a  large  farm.  He  was  a  cedar-cooper,  and  famous 
for  the  fine  wares  he  made -pails,  churns,  piggins,  and 
other  vessels.  I  have  seen  him,  but  he  was  very  old,  as  was 
his  wife.  They  lived  in  a  log  cabin  in  the  yard  of  the  resi- 
dence of  my  Grandfather  McCarty.  They  must  have  died 
in  1860. 


The  MacCarthy,  McCarty,  or  Carty  Family  is  descended 
from  Milesius,  King  of  Spain,  through  the  line  of  his  son 
Heber.  The  founder  of  the  family  was  Coi*mac,  King  of 
Munster,  A.  D.  483.  The  ancient  name  was  Carthann, 
which  signifies  "Kindness."  The  chief  of  the  sept  was 
McCarthy  More,  Prince  of  Muskerry,  King  and  Prince  of 
Desmond,  King  of  Cashel  and  ]\Iunster,  The  possessions 
of  the  family  were  located  in  the  present  counties  of  Cork, 
Limerick,  and  Clare.  The  sept  comprised  the  families  of 
the  McCarthy  More,  McCarthy  Raigh,  0 'Donovan, 
O'Keefe,  O'Mahony,  McAulifl:e',  0 'Cowley,  0 'Curry, 
0 'Collins,  O'Dunnady,  McCartney,  McCurtin,  McCutch- 
eon,  McHngh,  and  O'Scanlon.  The  McCarthys  took  their 
name  from  Cartagh,  King  of  Desmond,  A.  D.  1100.  Un- 
der the  Irish  kings,  and  long  after  the  advent  of  the  Anglo- 
Norman  invader,  the  McCarthy  family  maintained  their 
princely  \)vommence.- Genealogy  of  Irish  Fajnilics,  by 
John  Rooney,  page  74. 

Richard  McCarty  was  born  in  Culpeper  County,  \'ir- 
ginia.  He  was  a  soldier  under  Braddock,  and  was  at 
Braddock's  defeat.  His  company  was  raised  by  one 
Slaughter,  of  Culpeper,  and  was  under  command  of  Gen- 


eral  Washington  on  the  Braddock  expedition.  In  the  War 
of  the  Revolution  Richard  McCarty  was  Captain  of  the 
company  from  1778  to  1781,  when  it  was  in  the  Virginia 
Line.  He  died  of  disease  about  the  close  of  the  Revolu- 
tion. (See  Heitman's  Register,  Washington,  1893).  His 
son  Abner  settled  in  Scott  County,  Virginia,  and  some  of 
our  family  say  Captain  McCarty  lived  until  about  1785, 
when  he  died  in  Scott  County,  but  of  this  I  have  no  proof. 
It  is  usually  believed  in  the  family  that  he  died  either  in 
the  war  or  soon  after  he  returned  to  Culpeper  County. 
Abner  McCarty  had  a  son  Wiley,  born  in  Scott  County, 
whose  son,  John,  came  with  a  second  colony  of  Methodists 
to  what  is  now  Johnson  County,  Kentucky.  There  he 
married  Lydia,  the  daughter  of  John  Burke,  in  1836,  and 
settled  on  a  farm  given  him  by  his  father-in-law,  on  the 
Rockhouse  Pork.  He  lived  there  until  his  death,  which 
was  caused  by  inflammatory  rheumatism  about  1861.  I  re- 
member his  funeral.  My  mother  had  taken  me  with  her 
in  her  visit  to  him  in  his  last  illness.  He  was  a  small  man, 
inclined  to  corpulency,  with  the  Irish  fondness  for  amuse- 
ment and  merriment.  He  was  noted  for  his  sharp  wit  and 
fortunate  speeches  in  repartee.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Methodist  Church  founded  by  Rev.  Alexis  Howes,  perhaps 
the  first  in  Eastern  Kentucky. 

The  temperament,  spirit,  genius,  of  the  Irish  people  were 
strongly  preserved  in  the  family  of  my  mother.  The  love 
and  reverence  for  the  ancient  traditions,  stories,  fairy 
tales,  and  lore  through  which  fancy  and  the  supernatural 
were  interwoven  were  a  passion  with  my  Grandfather  Mc- 
Carty, and  all  this,  intensified  and  multiplied,  was  inherit- 
ed by  my  mother.  Grandfather  sang  innumerable  songs 
of  Old  Ireland,  and  his  stories  of  the  McCarty  banshee 
charmed  me  and  so  frightened  me  when  a  child  that  I  was 
in  terror  when  put  to  bed  at  night.  My  mother  sang  many 
of  tliese  old  folk-songs  to  her  children.  She  died  so  young 
tliat  1  did  not  have  opportunity  to  presence  any  of  them, 


Father  of  tlio  Autlior 

[Photofiriij'h    I'll    Liitlii  r.,    Ky. 


but  the  spirit  and  rhythm  of  them  so  took  hold  of  me  that 
I  hear  always  the  music  of  them. 

My  Grandmother  McCarty  lived  to  a  great  age,  dying 
a  few  years  ago  in  Owsley  County,  Kentucky,  but  I  have 
not  the  date  of  her  birth  or  death.     C^hildren  : 

1.  Rebecca  Jane.  Born  January  14,  1S37.  My  motli- 
er.  Married  my  father,  Constantine  Conley,  Junior,  in 
1854,  in  Johnson  County. 

2.  Mary  A.  Married  Rev.  Samuel  K.  Ramey,  long 
Presiding  Elder  of  the  Middlesboro  District.  No  cliil- 

3.  Martha.  Married  Franklin  Centers,  of  Clay  Coun- 
ty, Kentucky.     They  have  a  large  family. 

4.  John.     Married  Sarah,  daughter  of Burkett. 

Lives    at   Brazil,   Indiana.     Has   two    sons,   Wiley    and 

5.  Abner.  Was  made  deaf  and  a  mute  by  scarlet 
fever  when  an  infant.     Never  married. 

6.  Wiley.  Married  Frances,  daughter  of  Rev.  Robert 
Calhoun,  of  the  Methodist  Church.  Lives  in  Johnson 

7.  Amanda.  Married  James  Estep,  and  removed  to 
Booneville,  Owsley  County,  Kentucky. 

8.  Angelina.  Married  Joseph  Estep.  They  live  in 
Booneville,  also. 

A  sister  of  my  grandmother  married  Rev.  William 
Green,  a  devout  and  eloquent  minister  of  the  Methodist 
Church  in  Johnson  County,  and  who  was  bom  in  Scott 
County,  Virginia.  They  left  a  large  family,  but  I  am  not 
infoimed  as  to  number  and  residence. 


Constantine  Conley,  Junior,  son  of  Henry  Connelly 
and  Rebecca  Blair,  his  wife,  married,  in  Johnson  County, 
Kentucky,  Rebecca  Jane  McCarty,  June  1),   1854.     Tlie 


marriage  ceremony  was  performed  by  Rev.  Alexis  Howes, 
the  venerable  pioneer  Methodist  preacher  of  Eastern 
Kentucky.  My  father  told  me  that  when  he  offered  to 
pay  him  a  fee  for  performing  the  ceremony  the  old  man 
said  to  him:  "Young  man,  you  could  well  afford  to  pay 
me  a  large  sum,  for  I  have  united  you  in  holy  wedlock 
with  one  of  the  fairest  daughters  of  the  Church  and  one 
of  the  best  girls  that  ever  lived.  I  baptized  her,  an  in- 
fant, and  I  have  known  her  all  her  life.  Her  value  is 
above  that  of  rubies.  I  love  her  as  my  own  daughter. 
Among  the  viands  prepared  by  her  own  fair  hands  I  will 
find  a  pie  made  for  her  wedding  feast,  and  that  is  all  the 
pay  I  desire  or  will  have. ' '  This  tribute  I  believe  to  have 
been  deserved,  and  my  father  treasured  it  as  long  as  he 

My  father  was  the  firstborn,  and  his  mother  had  train- 
ed him  to  aid  her  about  the  house  when  he  was  a  small 
boy.  He  was  a  fine  cook.  In  those  days  the  farmhouse 
was  a  manufactory  where  the  shoes  for  the  family  were 
made.  Those  were  days  of  homespun,  pioneer  days,  the 
heroic  days  in  the  life  of  any  land.  In  them  was  laid 
well  the  foundation  of  our  government,  and  he  that  would 
have  inspiration  must  study  to  understand  them.  My 
father  was  taught  to  make  the  shoes  of  the  family,  and 
these  were  made  from  leather  tanned  on  the  farm.  This 
became  his  occupation  in  after  life,  and  this  trade  he 
taught  to  me.  His  father  gave  him  a  farm  on  the  Wolf 
Pen  Branch,  a  prong  of  the  Middle  Fork  of  Jennie 's  Creek- 
a  part  of  the  old  homestead.  My  mother  was  energetic 
and  ambitious.  When  the  County  of  Magoffin  was  formed 
and  the  county-seat  fixed  at  Salyersville  she  desired  to  go 
there  and  see  if  opportunities  could  be  found.  They  mov- 
ed there  about  1858,  and  built  the  first  hotel  there.  For 
many  years  it  was  known  as  the  Hager  House ;  and  it  yet 
stands.  Uncle  William  Blair  sawed  the  lumber  for  it  in 
his  mill  in  the  Licking  River. 


My  father  early  enlisted  in  the  Union  army -in  the 
Fourteenth  Kentucky  Regiment.  But  for  some  reason 
he  was  not  mustered  in  that  regiment.  He  enlisted  in  the 
Forty-fifth  Regiment,  Mounted  lnfantr>-,  and  served  to 
the  end  of  the  war.  My  mother  died  in  Novemher,  1802. 
She  is  buried  on  the  hill  above  where  the  mill  of  Uncle 
William  Blair  was,  on  a  tract  of  land  on  which  there  was 
an  old  graveyard.  My  father  married,  for  a  second  wife, 
Artemisia,  eldest  daughter  of  Caleb  ^lay,  but  she  lived 
but  a  few  months.  He  then  married  Charlotte  Picklesini- 
er,  a  niece  of  Louis  Power,  and  a  granddaughter  of  Wil 
liam  Prater,  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  that  region.  After 
the  war  he  moved  to  Johnson  County,  where  he  lived  until 
his  death,  in  1904.  He  died  at  East  Point,  and  is  buried 
there.     Children : 

1.  William  Elsey.  Born  on  the  Wolf  Pen  Branch. 
Johnson  County,  Kentucky,  March  15,  1855.  The  name 
** Elsey"  was  given  me  by  my  mother  for  an  old  Virginia 
family  with  whom  her  family  was  connected  by  blood,  but 
in  what  degree  I  do  not  know.  The  Sweatnam  and  Lit- 
teral  families  of  Eastern  Kentucky  are  also  connected 
with  this  old  Virginia  family.  I  remember  many  things 
which  occurred  at  the  home  of  my  birth,  one  of  which  T 
will  relate.  There  was  some  game  then,  and  my  father 
was  an  expert  hunter.  There  was  an  immense  turkey  in 
the  forest  about  our  home  that  had  often  been  shot  at  by 
the  old  hunters,  but  he  was  so  wary  that  all  the  shots  had 
to  be  from  long  distances,  and  he  had  always  escaped.  ()n«' 
evening,  at  dusk,  my  father  came  in  from  a  hunt,  and  1 
heard  him  tell  my  mother  that  the  big  turkey  had  just  flown 
into  the  top  of  a  large  poplar  that  stood  at  the  back  of  our 
fields,  there  to  roost  for  the  night.  He  said  he  would  go 
out  there  at  daylight  and  try  to  get  a  shot  at  him.  I  im- 
mediately set  up  an  outcry  to  be  taken  along,  which  was 
finally,  at  my  mother's  solicitation,  agreed  to.  I  rcnicm 
ber  that  it  was  not  light  when  we  set  out,  but  the  distance 


was  not  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  I  was  left  at  the 
fence,  beyond  which  there  was  a  thicket  in  which  the  big 
poplar  grew.  I  could  see  the  turkey  outlined  against  the 
sky,  and  he  was  stretching  his  neck  downward  as  far  as 
he  could,  apparently  seeking  a  place  to  fly  down  to,  for  it 
was  dark  below.  My  father  must  have  seen  that  the  tur- 
key was  intent  on  flying  down,  for  he  shot,  as  he  said, 
before  it  was  light  enough  to  get  a  good  "bead"  on  him. 
But  it  was  a  lucky  shot,  though  one  that  came  near  miss- 
ing. The  turkey's  neck  was  shot  in- two  at  the  body.  Here 
he  came  flopping  down  from  the  height  of  a  hundred  feet 
and  fell  in  the  thicket  very  near  me.  I  remember  with 
what  pride  my  father  carried  him  home  and  exhibited  him 
to  my  mother.  The  parents  of  both  my  father  and  moth- 
er were  invited  to  come  to  a  dinner  when  he  was  roasted. 
I  remember  seeing  my  mother  roasting  the  turkey  in  a 
large  iron  kettle  used  usually  for  laundry  purposes.  I 
am  not  sure  I  remember  the  weight  of  the  turkey  accur- 
ately, but  thirty-nine  pounds  always  seems  to  me  to  be 
the  weight.  While  I  have  a  perfect  recollection  of  seeing 
the  turkey  cooked,  I  have  none  whatever  of  the  dinner 
nor  of  either  of  my  grandfathers  or  grandmothers,  though 
I  have  been  told  all  were  present. 

2.  Henry  Clay  Harris.     Born  October  18,  1856. 

3.  Louisa  Elizabeth.     Born  May  26,  1858. 

4.  Martha  Ellen.     Born  July  19,  1860. 

5.  John  Mason.     Bom  May  5, 1862. 

Children  by  Charlotte  Picklesimer,  the  third  wife : 

1.  James  Mason  Brown.  Born  November  20,  1865. 
This  is  the  date  I  have,  but  I  am  certain  that  it  should  be 

2.  Joseph  Milton.     Born  April  28,  1868. 

3.  Sarah.     Born  August  29,  1870. 

4.  Mary.    Born  June  5,  1873. 

5.  Susan.     Born  June  11,  1875. 



Having  traced  the  family  from  the  beginning  to  a  point 
where  all  descendants  can  easily  discern  their  particular 
branches  and  continue  them,  I  cease  at  this  point.  Uur 
family,  and  all  the  families  with  which  it  has  intermarried, 
are  of  the  i:>ioneer  stock  of  America.  They  are  neither 
better  nor  worse  than  the  other  pioneer  American  fami- 
lies. Pride  of  ancestry  is  an  inspiration,  and  we  of  the 
South  have  it  in  large  degree.  But  it  should  not  degen- 
erate into  arrogance  or  intolerance. 


John  Wesley  Langley  was  born  near  the  close  of  the 
Civil  War,  in  Floyd  County,  Kentucky.  He  is  descended 
from  the  Langley  Family  of  North  Carolina  and  the  Rob- 
inson Family  of  Virginia,  both  old  Revolutionary  families. 
On  his  mother's  side  he  is  descended  from  the  Salmons 
and  Click  families  of  Virginia  and  Kentucky.  His  ma- 
ternal ancestor  was  Edith  MacAlpine,  who  married  Arch- 
ibald MacGregor,  and,  afterwards,  Langley.    Her 

daughter,  Ann  MacGregor,  married  Captain  Henry  Con- 
nelly. John  W.  Langley,  therefore,  is  descended  from  the 
Clan  MacAlpine,  the  first  of  the  Scottish  Highland  clans. 
And  he  and  all  the  Langleys  of  his  family  are  cousins  to 
the  descendants  of  Captain  Henry  Connelly  —  making, 
perhaps,  the  largest  blood-relationship  in  Eastern  Ken- 
tucky. Through  his  mother's  line  he  inherits  a  large 
element  of  German  blood. 

Langley  was  educated  in  the  common  schools  of  Floyd 
County,  and  in  the  Georgetown,  Columbian,  and  National 
Universities  of  Washington  City,  at  which  he  attended  at 
night  while  holding  a  government  position.  He  won  the 
first  honors  in  all  three  of  these  Universities  and  took  the 
degrees  of  A.  B.,  LL.  B.,  and  LL.  M.,  Doctor  of  Civil  Law 
and  Master  of  Diplomacy.  He,  therefore,  has  taken  the 
highest  working  degrees  conferred  by  any  University  in 
the  country.  His  early  education  was  secured  with  the 
usual  difficulties  encountered  by  a  country  boy  in  the 
mountains  of  Kentucky,  and  almost  entirely  through  hia 
own  unaided  efforts. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen  Langley  was  granted  a  teacher's 
certificate,  receiving  the  highest  rating  in  the  county.     He 

.loII.V    WksI.I'.V    LvNdl.KV 


taught  school  for  three  years,  and  was  then  apj^ointed  to  a 
clerkship  in  Washington.  Later,  he  returned  to  Ken- 
tucky and  was  twice  elected  to  the  Legishiture  of  that 
State,  receiving  at  the  beginning  of  his  second  term  the 
caucus  nomination  of  his  party  for  S])eaker  of  the  House, 
which  made  him  the  minority  leader  of  that  body.  He 
afterwards  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Pen- 
sion Appeals,  having  received  the  highest  rating  of  all 
who  took  the  examination  for  the  position ;  and  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Interior,  in  one  of  his  official  reports,  said  that 
Langley  stood  at  the  head  of  the  list  for  amount  of  work 

After  holding  this  position  for  some  time  Langley  re- 
turned again  to  his  native  State  and  was  the  nominee  of 
his  party  for  Member  of  Congress.  The  district  was  over- 
whelmingly Democratic,  and  he  was  defeated.  lie  was 
then  given  the  position  of  Appointment  Clerk  of  the  Cen- 
sus Office,  and,  later,  the  office  of  Disbursing  Clerk  was,  by 
Act  of  Congress,  combined  with  that  of  Appointment 
Clerk,  and  he  held  both  positions  until  he  was  given  his 
second  nomination  for  Congress,  in  his  home  district,  in 
1906.  In  this  position  he  made  an  exceptional  record,  and 
his  salary  was  twice  increased  by  special  Act  of  Congress. 
While  his  district  had  been  Democratic  by  a  good  mar- 
gin, Langley  was  elected  to  Congress  in  1906  by  a  majority 
of  nearly  one  thousand.  In  Congress  he  at  once  took  liigh 
rank,  and  his  record  was  so  satisfactory  to  the  peo]ile  that, 
two  years  later,  he  was  re-elected  by  a  majority  of  almost 
three  thousand.  He  is  at  this  time,  1910,  the  unanimous 
nominee  of  the  Republican  party  in  his  district  for  -x  tliird 
term  in  Congress. 

In  Congress  Langley  has  been  particularly  active  in  his 
efforts  to  secure  additional  pension  legislation,  appropria- 
tions for  the  erection  of  public  buildings  and  the  improve- 
ment of  the  Kentucky  and  Big  Sandy  rivers,  and  F'cderal 
aid  in  the  construction  of  public  highways. 


Langley  has  been  a  delegate  to  two  Republican  National 
Conventions,  and  he  was  the  first  to  propose  Roosevelt 
for  Vice-President  on  the  floor  of  the  convention  at  Phil- 
adelphia in  1900.  He  is  forceful,  tactful,  energetic,  of  a 
pleasing  personality,  ambitious  to  accomplish  things  for 
his  people  and  the  country,  of  the  highest  integrity  and 
sense  of  honor,  and  a  man  in  whom  the  people  repose  the 
fullest  measure  of  confidence. 

Milton  hdKKKsT  Conley 
pjditor  and  l^anker,  Louisa,  Ky. 


Milton  Forrest  Conley  (spelling  of  name  changed  from 
Connelly  by  his  father)  was  born  June  13,  18(18,  at  Louisa. 
Lawrence  County,  Kentucky,  where  he  now  lives,  lie  is 
a  great-great  grandson  of  Captain  llenrj^  Connelly,  of  the 
Revolution,  through  the  soldier's  son  Thomas  and  through 
Constantine,  the  eldest  son  of  Thomas. 

Milton  Forrest  Conley  is  the  eldest  of  three  chihlreii 
(two  sons  and  a  daughter)  of  Asa  Johnson  Conley  and 
Elizabeth  Leslie  Conley.  The  other  son  is  Martin  Leslie 
Conley,  General  Manager  of  the  Ohio  &  Kentucky  Rail- 
way Company  and  President  of  the  Morgan  County  Na- 
tional Bank  at  Cannel  City,  Ky. 

Milton  Forrest  Conley  was  educated  in  the  common 
schools,  and  in  his  sixteenth  year  established  the  Big 
Sandy  News,  a  weekly  newspaper  since  continuously  pub- 
lished by  him.    It  was  the  first  weekly  newspaper  in  Ken- 
tucky to  install  a  linotype  machine.     During  the  years 
1901  and  1902  he  was  a  one-half  owner  in  the  Ashland, 
(Ky.),  Daily  Independent,  the  Catlettsburg,  (Ky.),  Daily 
Press,  and  the  Kentucky  Democrat,  dividing  his  time  be- 
tween these  and  the  Big  Sandy  News.    He  has  ])een  a 
member  of  the  Kentucky  Press  Association  for  twenty- 
two  years  and    an  Executive    Committeemman  several 
terms;  and  he  has  attended  the  National  Editorial  Asso^ 
ciation  four  years  as  Delegate  from  Kentucky.     In  W.i 
he  was  appointed  Postmaster  at  Louisa  and  served  four 
years      In  1904  the  Louisa  National  Bank  was  organized 
with  a  capital  of  $50,000,  and  he  was  ofForod  t^^^M;;;'^^ 
of  Director  and  Cashier,  which  he  accepted  aiul  st.l   ho  Ms. 
He  is  identified  with  other  business  enterprises  m  the  Hig 


Sandy  Valley,  and  is  one  of  the  two  Trustees  of  the  Ken- 
tucky Normal  College,  at  Louisa,  which  has  four  hundred 
boarding  students  and  a  like  number  of  local  students. 
He  was  married  to  Miss  Willie  Burgess  in  1894,  and  of 
this  union  three  children  have  been  born. 


This  volume  is  the  first  of  a  series  which  1  intend  to 
publish  on  the  history  and  genealogy-  of  Eastern  Kentucky. 

Eastern  Kentucky  has  a  history  as  important  and  in- 
teresting as  has  any  part  of  America,  and  it  is  my  design 
to  set  it  down  faithfully  in  these  volumes. 

As  shown  in  this  volume,  the  people  of  Eastern  Ken- 
tucky are  descended  from  the  best  families  of  Europe 
and  America.  The  only  trouble  has  been  that  they  have 
not  made  any  effort  to  collect  and  preserve  family  annals 
and  traditions.  To  gather  authentic  information  about 
the  early  history  of  a  family  is  extremely  expensive,  and 
this  has  been  the  principal  cause  of  delay  in  securing  it  by 
some  families. 

I  have  extensive  records  of  the  Mayo,  Leslie,  Auxier, 
Hager,  Meek,  Cecil,  Preston,  Brown,  Harris,  Dixon,  Wit- 
ten,  Patrick,  Prater,  May,  Stafford,  Mankins,  Porter, 
Hanna,  Rice,  Rule,  Price,  Caudill,  Adams,  Gardner,  How- 
ard, Williams,  Salyer,  and  many  other  pioneer  famihes 
of  Eastern  Kentucky.  I  hope  to  treat  these,  or  some  of 
them,  at  least,  even  more  extensively  and  thoroughly  than 
I  have  the  Connelly  and  other  families  in  this  volume. 

William  Elsey  Connelley 



Albemarle  Point,  Old:  the  Con- 
nellys first  settled  at,  95. 

Anderson,  Major  Charles:  known  to 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  117. 

Argjilshire:  former  home  of  the 
MacGregors,  101. 

Armagh:  County  of  in  Ireland,  the 
Connellys  came  from,  95. 

Backwoodsmen,  the:  character  of; 
how  they  subdued  the  wilderness, 
21;  their  manner  of  life  in  their 
settlements,  22. 

Bailey,  Rev.  Wallis:  referred  to  for 
character  by  Captain  Henry  Con- 
nelly; certificate  of;  certified  to 
by  clerk  as  a  clergyman,  115;  re- 
ferred to  by  Captain  Connelly, 
118;  formed  United  Baptist 
Church  in  Eastern  Kentucky,  125. 

Balclutha :  town  at  forks  of  Big 
Sandy  River  so  named,  54. 

Balquhidder:  burial  place  of  the 
MacGregors  at  Church  of,  101. 

Baptists:  formation  of  the  United 
from  Primitive  Baptists  in  East- 
em  Kentucky.  125. 

Bear  Branch:  descended  by  Mrs. 
"Wiley  in  her  escape,  72. 

Bear :  pictured  on  an  elm  tree  in 
Paintsville,  53. 

Bickley,     :      quotation     from 

History  of  Tazewell  Co.,  Va.,  writ- 
ten by,  31. 

Big  Mudlick  Creek,  the:  Indians  de- 
scended, 50:  painted  rocks  along, 

Big  Paint  Creek,  the :  description  of ; 
painted  trees  along  found  by  the 

first  settlers,  52 ;  mounds  above 
mouth  of,  54;  Simon  Kenton 
lived  two  winters  at  mouth  of,  55; 
followed  by  Mrs.  Wiley  in  her  es 
cape,  72. 

Big  Sandy  River,  the:  veneration  of 
the  Indians  for;  Cherokees,  Shaw- 
nees,  Delawares,  Toteros  and  Wy- 
andots  roamed  over,  52. 

Big  Sandy  Valley,  The:  by  Dr.  Wil- 
liam Ely,  referred  to,  81. 

Blair  Family,  the:  in  America; 
founded  by  Rev.  Samuel  Blair  and 
Rev.  John  Blair;  founded  schools 
which  became  Princeton  Univers- 
ity; distinguished  men  of;  origin 
of  name  of,  134. 

Blairs,  the:  many  of  descended  from 
Edith  MacAlpine,   100. 

Blair,  Alamander:  son  of  Asa  Blair, 

Blair,  Asa:  son  of  George  Blair; 
author  lived  at  house  of;  George 
Blair  died  at  home  of,  135 ;  mar- 
ried whom;   children  of,  139. 

Blair,  Britton:  married  Malinda 
Spradlin,  126;  son  of  George 
Blair;  death  of,  136. 

Blair,  Clarinda:  daughter  of  George 
Blair;   married  whom,  138. 

Blair,  Ellen:  daughter  of  Asa  Blair, 

Blair,  Francis  Preston,  Sr. :  frienti 
of  Andrew  Jackson;  editor  of  the 
Washington  Globe,  135. 

Blair,  General  Francis  Preston,  Jr.: 
distinguished  member  of  the  Blair 
Family,  134. 



Blair,  George:  daughter  of  married 
Henry  Connelly,  105,  126 ;  married 
Mary  Fairchild,  134;  lived  where 
in  Johnson  County;  death  of; 
character  of,  135;  Presbyterian, 
but  united  with  Baptist  Church ; 
wife  of  sometimes  lectured;  child- 
ren of,   136. 

Blair,  Henry  W. :  former  U.  S.  Sen- 
ator from  New  Hampshire;  mem- 
ber of  this  Blair  Family,  134. 

Blair,  James:  first  Attorney-General 
of  Kentucky,  135. 

Blair,  James:  son  of  George  Blair, 

Blair,  Rev.  John:  Presbyterian  min- 
ister; founded  Fagg's  Manor 
School,  the  beginning  of  Prince- 
ton University,  134. 

Blair,  John :  son  of  Noble  Blair ; 
married  Susan  Connelly ;  was  a 
millwright,  127. 

Blair,  John:  son  of  George  Blair; 
some  account  of,  136. 

Blair,  John  I. :  member  of  this  Blair 
Family,  134. 

Blair,  Levi:  son  of  George  Blair; 
lived  where;  traits  of,  136. 

Blair,  Malinda:  widow  of  Britton 
Blair;  married  Dr.  Isaac  Rice;  in- 
duced author  to  visit  home  and 
argue  scripture  with  husband,  136. 

Blair,  Margaret:  married  John  Con 
nelly,  126. 

Blair,  Mary:  daughter  of  George 
Blair,  139. 

Blair,  Noble:  brother  of  George 
Blair;  daughter  of  married  John 
Connelly,  126;  lived  where,  135. 

Blair,  Noble:  son  of  George  Blair; 
lived  where,   138. 

Blair,  Rebecca:  daughter  of  George 
Blair,  grandmother  of  the  author; 
traits  of;  married  Henry  Connolly, 
137 ;  some  account  of,   139. 

Blair,     Rev.     Samuel :     Presbyterian 

minsiter;    preached   in   Old   South 

Church,  Boston,  134. 
Blair,   Washington:    called  "Watt" 

Blair;  characteristics  of;  a  genius, 

Blair,  William :  son  of  George  Blair ; 

lived  where;  married  whom;  death 

of,    138;    sawed    the    lumber    for 

hotel,   146. 
Bluestone:  headwaters  of  crossed  by 

the  Indians  with  Mrs.   Wiley,  41. 
Boma,    William,    Ensign :    known   to 

Captain   Henry   Connelly,    117. 
Boone,  Daniel:  trip  of  to  Big  Sandy 

Valley,  55. 
Borders,   John:    soldier  under   Corn- 

wallis;   surrendered  at   Yorktown; 

married  daughter  of  Hezekiah  Sel- 

lards;  descendants  of,  24;  warned 

Mrs.   Wiley  that  Indians  were   in 

the     setlement,     36;     urged     Mrs. 

Wiley    to    go    to    his    home,    37; 

alarmed  the  settlers,   63. 
Braddock's  Defeat:   mention  of,  17. 
Brevard,      Colonel      Ephraim:      had 

skirmishes    with     Loyalists,     112; 

known  by  Captain  Henry  Connelly, 

114,  117. 

Brevard,  John:  commanded  regiment 

to  which  Abind  Fairchild  belonged, 

Briant,   Captain  Charles:    known   by 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  117. 
Brown,  Colonel  Francis  A.:  referred 

to    by    Captain    Henry    Connelly, 

115,  118;    Justice    of    the   Peace, 

Brushy  Mountain :  Indians  carried 
Mrs.  Wiley  across,  41. 

Buncombe.  Colonel  :   known  by 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  117. 

Burgess,  Miss  Willie:  married  Milton 
Forrest  Conley,  154. 

Burke  Family:  origin  of;  influential 
in  Ireland;  name  of  Norman  an- 
cestor and  founder  of,  142. 



Burke.  Governor:  eaptured  by  the 
famous  Tory.  Fanning,  110;  di- 
rected Captain  Henry  Connelly  to 
keep  down  Fanning,  117;  commis- 
sioned  Captain   Connelly,   118. 

Burke.  Jolni :  came  to  Kentucky  whh 
the  Howes  colony;  some  account 
of;  children  of,  143. 

Burke,  Lydia:  married  .Tohn  Mc- 
Carty,  14.3. 

Burke,  William:  in  the  Revolution 
under  "Light  Horse  Harry"  Lee; 
Descendants  of,  142. 

Burkett,  Sarah:  married  .John  (son 
of  John)  McCarty,  145. 

Burris,  Rev.  M.  T. :  wrote  for  the 
author  an  account  of  the  early  set- 
tlement of  the  Big  Sandy  Valley. 
12;  gave  information  Sellards  fam- 
ily, 24;  gave  description  of  Mrs. 
Wiley,  25;  wrote  an  account  of 
battle  with  Indians  at  camp  of  the 
liunters,   30. 

Cabins:  those  built  at  the  mouth  of 
Big  Paint  Creek  by  the  Frcndi 
and  Indians,  55. 

Calhoun,  Frances:  married  Wiley 
McCarty,  145. 

Camden.  S.  C. :  company  of  Abiml 
Fairchild  marched  to,   128. 

Campbell,  Colonel  William:  con- 
duct of  in  King's  Mountain 
campaign,   130. 

Cane  Creek:  Abind  Fairchild 's  com- 
pany fell  in  with  Virginia  troops 
at  on  King's  Mountain  campaign, 

Captive,  the:  brought  to  Little  Mud- 
lick  Creek  by  the  Cherokee  Chief, 
15;  torture  of;  name  of  not 
known;  memory  of  lost;  Mrs.  Wi- 
ley certain  of  torture  of,  60;  ap- 
peared to  Mrs.  Wiley  in  her 
dream ;  pointed  out  way  to  Har- 
nian  "s  Station,  70. 

Caudills,  tliL':  some  of  descended 
from  Edith   MacAlpine,  100. 

Centers,  Franklin :  married  Martha 
McCarty,  145. 

Central  Methodist,  The:  edited  by 
Rev.  Zephaniah  Meek,   81. 

Charles  Edward,  the  Pretender: 
cause  of  espoused  by  Archibald 
MacGregor,    102. 

Charleston,  S.  C. :  the  Connellys  own- 
ed a  part  of  the  site  of,  95. 

Charlotte,  N.  C. :  troops  marched  to, 

Chaves,  ,Tose:  Dr.  Henry  Connelly 
married  widow  of,  98. 

Cherokees.  the:  sold  to  Henderson  a 
shadowy  claim  to  Kentucky,  17; 
many  killed  by  Matthias  Harman ; 
trails  of,  27;  some  of  in  band 
that  murdered  family  of  Wiley, 
33;  regarded  the  region  about  the 
mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek  with 
veneration,  52;  told  early  settlers 
that  mounds  there  had  fire  in  them, 
54;  pointed  out  towns  of  the  To- 
teros,  55. 

Cherokee  Ford:  Broad  River  crossed 
at  by  troops  on  King's  Mountain 
campaign,    131. 

Cherokee  Fork:  Indians  with  Mrs. 
Wiley  camped  on,  49. 

Cherokee  Gap:  Indians  carried  Mrs. 
Wiley  through,  49. 

Cherokee  Chief,  the:  leader  of  the 
band  which  attacked  the  hunters; 
son  of  killed  by  Matthias  Har- 
man, 29;  guide  in  Sandy  Creek 
Voyage,  30;  angered  by  death  of 
son,  31;  went  to  Walker's  Creek 
to  murder  family  of  Harman,  32; 
account  of  given  by  Mrs.  Wiley, 
34;  planned  the  escape  of  the  In- 
dians with  Mrs.  Wiley,  38;  could 
apeak  English  imperfectly,  39; 
furnished  food,  42;  wished  to  kill 
^frs.  Wiley's  child,  43;  killed  the 
child,     46;     separated     from     the 



Shawnee  party,  48  ;  arrived  at  Lit- 
tle Mudlick  Creek  with  the  cap- 
tive; made  Mrs.  Wiley  cook  for 
him,  59;  bought  Mrs.  Wiley,  61; 
characteristics  of,  70 ;  went  to  kill 
buffalo,  71 ;  pursued  by  Mrs.  Wi- 
ley; too  late;  his  exclamation  and 
disappearance,   75. 

Children  of  the  Mist :  were  of  the 
Clan  MacGregor,   101. 

Clarke,  William  J. :  Comptroller  oi' 
North  Carolina;  said  pension  De- 
claration of  Captain  Henry  Con- 
nelly was  the  best  history  of  the 
Revolution  in  Middle  Couuties  of 
North  Carolina  ever  written,   125. 

Cleveland,  Colonel  Benjamin:  known 
by  Captain  Henry  Connelly,  114. 
117;  Abind  Fairchild  served  un- 
der, 129 ;  fought  at  Ramsour  's 
Mill,  130;  commanded  troops  in 
King's    Mountain   campaign,    131. 

Cleveland,  Captain  John:  son  of 
Colonel  Benjamin  Cleveland,  com- 
manded company  of  Abind  Fair 
child,  131. 

Cole,  Ben :  sent  out  to  hunt  game. 

Colson's  Mills:  Captain  Henry  Con 
nelly  wounded  at  battle  of.  117. 

Colvin  Family:  founded  by  John 
Colvin;  descended  from  Abind 
Fairchild,  134. 

Colvin,  Abind:  in  Fourteenth  Ken- 
tucky Infantry,   134. 

Colvin,  Jehisa:  in  Fourteenth  Ken- 
tucky  Infantry,    134. 

Colvin,  John:  referred  to  by  Abind 
Fairchild  whose  daughter  he  mar 
ried;  sons  of  in  Fourteenth  Ken- 
tucky Infantry,  133;  founder  of 
Colvin  Family,   134. 

Connelly  Family,  the:  descended 
from  Mih^sius,  King  of  S])ain ; 
founded  by  Eogan,  King  of  Ire 
land;  Ileremon,  son  of  Milesius, 
its  aueestiir;  sigiiifu'iit  ion  of  name 

of;  possessions  of  where  in  Ire- 
land ;  ancient  form  of  name ; 
South  Carolina  the  first  American 
home  of,  95. 
Connellys,  the:  with  Boone  visited 
the  Big  Sandy  Valley  about  1763, 
55;  dealt  in  lands  and  townsites; 
induced  Germans  and  Scotch-Irish 
to  settle  in  South  Carolina ;  fought 
in  the  Revolution;  served  under 
famous  American  Generals;  where 
settled;  where  now  found.  96; 
many  descended  from  Edith  Mae- 
Alpine,  100;  proud  of  their  de- 
scent from  the  Clan  MacGregor. 
Conley:  one  form  of  the  name  Con- 
nelly; the  most  common  form  in 
Eastern  Kentucky;  relatives  of  the 
author  so  write  it,  97. 
Conley,  Amanda:    date  of  birth   of; 

married  whom,  141. 
Conley,  Asa  Johnson:    marriage  of; 

children  of,  153. 
Conley,  Catherine:  date  of  birth  of; 

married  whom,  141. 
Conley,  Celia :  date  of  birth  of.  140. 
Conley,  Clarinda:   date  of  birth  of-, 

married  whom,  141. 
Conley,  Constantine,  Jr  :  portraits 
of,  145,  148 ;  in  Union  Army  in 
Civil  War;  father  of  the  author; 
lived  in  log  cabin  on  Wolf  Pen 
Fork,  105 ;  married  Rebecca  Jane 
MeCarty;  lived  where,  140;  mov- 
ing of  mentioned;  reply  of  Rev. 
Alexis  Howes  to;  was  a  shoe- 
maker; built  hotel  at  Salyersville, 
146;  enlisted  in  Fourteenth  Ken- 
tucky Infantry  but  was  not  mus- 
tered; served  in  Forty-fifth, 
Mounted  Infantry;  second  and 
third  marriages  of;  killed  the  fa- 
mous wild  turkey.  147;  children  of. 
Conley.  Cynthia:  date  of  birth  of; 
married   whom,   142. 



Conley,  Elizabeth  Leslie:  married 
Asa  Johnson  Conley;  children  of, 

Conley.  Henry  C.  H.:  date  of  birth 
of,  148. 

Conley,  James  Hayden :  son  of  John 
Connelly,  126. 

Conley,  James  Mason  Brovrn :  date 
of  birth  of,  148. 

Conley,  John:  son  of  Henry  Con- 
nelly;   date  of  birth  of,   141. 

Conley,  John  M. :  son  of  Constantine 
Conley,  Jr.:  date  of  birth  of,  148. 

Conley,  .Joseph  Milton :  date  of  birth 
of,  148. 

Conley,  Louisa  Elizabeth :  date  of 
birth  of,  148. 

Conley,  Lucina,  date  of  birth  of; 
married  whom,   141. 

Conley,  Mahala:  date  of  birth  of; 
married  whim ;   children  of,   141. 

Conley,  Martha  Ellen:  date  of  birth 
of,   148. 

Conley,  Martin  Leslie:  parents  of; 
President  of  Morgan  County  Na- 
tional Bank;  General  Manager 
Ohio  &  Kentucky  Railway  Com- 
pany, 153. 

Conley,  Mary:  date  of  birth;  mar- 
ried whom,  141. 

Conley,  Mary:  daughter  of  Con- 
stantine Conlej'',  Jr.;  date  of  birth 
of,    148. 

Conley,  Milton  Forrest:  portrait  of; 
date  of  birth  of;  parents  of; 
founded  Big  Sandy  News;  has 
had  interests  in  other  papers;  was 
Postmaster  of  native  town ;  Cash- 
ier of  Louisa  National  Bank;  con- 
nected with  other  enterprises,  153  ; 
marriage  of;  Trustee  of  Kentucky 
Normal  College,  154. 

Conley,  Sarah:  date  of  birth  of,  148. 

Conley,  Susan :  date  of  birth  of,  148. 

Conley,  Thomas:  son  of  Henry  Con- 
nelly; date  of  birth  of,  141. 

Conley,  William:  son  of  Henry  Con- 

nelly; was  in  Fourteenth  Kentucky 
Cavalry;  died  in  the  service;  traits 
of,   141. 

ConuelU:  one  form  of  the  name  Con- 
nelly, 97. 

Connelly,  Anu:  wife  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly;  was  Ann  Mac- 
Gregor;  probable  date  of  death 
of,  108. 

Connelly,  Celia:  birth  of;  married 
Dr.  Isaac  Rice,  126. 

Connelly,  Constantine:  born  in  North 
Carolina;  lived  in  Kentucky;  mar- 
ried Celia  Fairchild,  126. 

Connelly,  David :  birth  of,  105. 

Connelly,  Edmund :  came  from  Ire- 
land to   South  Carolina,   95. 

Connelly,  Edmund :  son  of  Henry, 
the  emigrant ;  married  Mary  Edge- 
field;  sons  of,  98. 

Connelly,  Edmund:  son  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly ;  always  claimed 
his  mother  was  a  Pennsylvania 
Dutch  woman,  99;  date  of  birth 
of ;  lived  in  Magoffin  County,  Ky. : 
author  attended  religious  services 
at  home  of;   married  whom,   103. 

Connelly,  Elizabeth:  date  of  birth 
of,  107. 

Connelly,  Frances:  married  Bcnja- 
min  Salyer,   126. 

Connelly,  Harmon :  visited  Kentucky 
with  Boone  and  others,  55;  mar- 
ried whom ;  moved  to  North  Caro- 
lina, 98;  visit  to  Kentucky  men- 
tioned; was  in  the  Revolution,  99., 

Connelly,  Henry:  came  from  Ire- 
land to  South  Carolina,  95. 

Connelly,  Henry:  manner  of"  life  in 
home  of,  23;  born  in  Letcher 
County,  Ky  ;  mother  died  at  home 
of;  lived  where,  104;  married  Re- 
becca Blair,  105;  date  of  birth  of, 
married  whom,  106;  where  born; 
date  of  birth  of ;  married  whom ; 
lived    where;    grandfather   of    the 



author,  126 ;  some  incidents  in  the 
life  of,  139;  children  of,  140. 
Connelly,  Captain  Henry:  the  numer- 
ous descendants  of;  moved  from 
North  Carolina  to  Virginia,  then 
to  Kentucky;  soldier  in  the  Rev- 
olution, 97;  son  of  whom;  born 
where;  settled  in  Guilford  County, 
North  Carolina,  100 ;  married  Ann 
MacGregor,  102;  family  Bible  of; 
family  record  of;  date  of  birth 
of;  wife  of;  mother  a  Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch  woman,  103 ;  signa- 
ture of;  date  of  death  of;  for  sec- 
ond wife  married  whom,  108 ;  ser- 
vices of  in  Revolution ;  declara- 
tion of  for  pension ;  when  he  en- 
listed; officers  served  under,  109, 
et.  seq. ;  appointed  to  keep  down 
Colonel  David  Fanning,  the  fa- 
mous Tory  leader  of  the  Revolu- 
tion; where  company  of  served  in 
1778,  110;  in  the  battle  of  the 
Cowpens;  in  the  great  retreat  of 
Colonel  Greene;  in  battle  of  Guil- 
ford Court  House;  men  of  in 
panic,  113;  names  of  officers  of 
the  Revolution  known  to  him; 
raised  company  to  go  to  York- 
town;  gave  his  commission  to  Gen- 
eral Lackey,  114;  date  of  birth 
of;  said  his  father  recorded  date 
in  family  Bible  "in  Dutch"; 
where  he  lived;  services  of  in  Rev- 
olution, 116 ;  wounded  at  Colson  's 
Mills;  nineteen  of  men  of  killed 
at  battle  of  Hillsboro;  was  at  bat- 
tle of  Cowpens  and  Guilford  Court 
House;  with  General  Green  in  his 
retreat  to  Dan  River,  117;  went 
to  Montgomery  County,  Va.,  and 
raised  company  to  go  to  York- 
town;  company  discharged;  had  a 
commission  from  Governor  Burke; 
testimonials  to  character  of,  118; 
affidavit  of  Phillip  Williamson  for, 
119;    affidavit   of   Jonathan    Pytts 

for,  120;  affidavit  of  Benedict 
Wadkins  for,  121;  affidavits  for  of 
William  Haney  and  Mesias  Hall, 
122;  enrolled  for  pension  at  $150 
per  annum;  was  called  a  Dutch- 
man, 123;  remarkable  letter  con- 
cerning pension  declaration  of; 
best  history  of  the  Revolution  ever 
written,  124;  moved  to  Rowan 
County,  Ky. ;  where  buried;  of  the 
Baptist  Church;  founder  of  the 
Connelly  family  in  Eastern  Ken- 
tucky, 125. 

Connelly,  Dr.  Henry:  portrait  of; 
was  Governor  of  New  Mexico; 
where  born ;  son  of  whom ;  grad- 
uated at  Transylvania  University; 
went  to  Missouri  and  to  Mexico, 
97;  merchant  in  Mexico;  aided 
General  Kearny  and  Colonel  Doni- 
phan in  Mexico;  trader  over  Old 
Santa  Fe  Trail;  explored  Okla- 
homa and  Texas;  saved  New  Mex- 
ico to  the  Union;  son  of  lives  in 
Kansas  City,  98;  account  of  writ- 
ten from  documents,  109. 

Connelly,  John:  came  from  Ireland 
to  South  Carolina,  95. 

Connelly,  John:  son  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly;  date  of  birth  of; 
married  a  Miss  Joynes;  settled 
where;  descendants  of  live  where, 

Connelly,  John:  son  of  Thomas; 
birth  of;  married  whom;  lived 
where;   one  of  the  sons  of,  126. 

Connelly,  John  Donaldson:  father 
of  Dr.  Henry  Connelly,  97. 

Connelly,  Joseph:  date  of  birth  of, 

Connelly,  Nancy:  married  Asa 
Fairchild;   lived  where,  127. 

Connelly,  Peggy:  date  of  birth  of, 

Connelly,  Peter:  son  of  Dr.  Henry 
Connelly,  98. 



Connelly,  Eachel:  date  of  birth  of; 
married  James  Spradlin,  Sr.,  105. 

Connelly,  Susan:  where  and  when 
born,  married  John  Blair,  127. 

Connelly,  Susan  Joynes:  described 
Mrs.  Wiley,  25;   children  of,  125. 

Connelly,  Temperance:  allowed  pen 
sion  of  $600  for  services  of  hus- 
band in  the  Revolution,   123. 

Connelly,  Thomas:  came  from  Ire- 
land to  South  Carolina,  95. 

Connelly,  Thomas:  visited  Kentucky 
with  Boone  and  others,  55 ;  was 
the  son  of  Edmund  Connelly,  98 ; 
moved  to  Pennsylvania ;  married 
a  Pennsylvania  Dutch  woman; 
was  in  the  Revolution  under  Gen- 
eral Charles  Cotesworth  Pinckney; 
wounded  at  the  battle  of  King's 
Mountain,  99;  was  at  the  defeat 
of  Braddock,  100. 

Connelly,  Thomas:  son  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly;  date  of  birth  of; 
married  whom ;  great  grandfather 
of  the  author,  104 ;  names  of  child- 
ren of,  125. 

Connelly,  Thomas:  son  of  Thomas 
and  grandson  of  Captain  Henry 
Connelly;  married  whom;  lived  on 
Abbott's  Creek,  Floyd  County, 
Ky.,  127. 

Connelly,  William :  son  of  Captain 
Henry  Connelly;  drowned  in  the 
Big  Sandy  River;  where  buried, 

Connelly,  William :  son  of  Thomas 
Connelly;   death  of,   126. 

Connelley,  William  Elsey:  date  of 
birth  of;  given  his  name  for 
whom;  author  of  this  work;  saw 
the  famous  wild  turkey  shot ;  some 
recollections  of,   147,   148. 

Conspiracy  of  Pontiac:  causes  of, 

Conspiracy  of  Fontiac,  the:  men- 
tioned,  18. 

Continental  money:  the  depreciation 
of.  111. 

Cormac,  King  of  Munster:  founder 
of  the  McCarty  FamUy,  143. 

Cornwallis,  Lord:  opposed  to  North 
Carolina  troops,  112. 

Cowpens:  the  battle  of;  Captain 
Henry  Connelly  in,  113;  men- 
tioned, 117;  troops  passed  on 
King's   Mountain   campaign,    131. 

Crane,  the:  chief  of  the  Wyandots, 

Crum,  William  C. :  tree  against 
which  Indians  dashed  Mrs  Wiley 's 
child  on  farm  of,  83. 

Damrons,  the:  moved  from  the 
Shenandoah  with  Hezekiah  Sel- 
lards,  21. 

Damron,  Lazarus:  with  Matthias 
Harman  in  pursuit  of  Indians,  82. 

Davidson,  General:  known  by  Cap- 
tain Henry  Connelly,  114,  117;  re- 
turn of  from  Washington's  army, 

Davidson,  Colonel  William:  aided 
the  North  for  a  time  in  the  Rev- 
olution, 111 ;  opposed  Cornwallis, 

Davie,  Colonel  W.  R. :  Captain  Henry 
Connelly  served  under,  111;  in 
command  of  district;  opposed 
Cornwallis,  112;  directed  Captain 
Henry  Connelly  to  keep  down  Fan- 
ning, 117;  failed  to  make  roll  of 
forces,  124. 

Davis,  James:  Justice  of  the  Peace; 
attestation  of  to  pension  declara- 
tion of  Captain  Henry  Connelly, 
115,  116;  certificates  of.  118. 

De  Kalb,  Baron:  known  by  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,  114,  117. 

Dela wares,  the :  some  of  in  band 
which  murdered  family  of  Wiley, 

DcnioH,  .Tolin  O. :  David  Fanning, 
the   Tory,  bound  to,    110. 



Dickson,  Eev.  Henry:  owned  land 
on  which  Paintsville,  Ky.,  is  sit- 
uated, 53;  referred  to  by  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,   115. 

Donegal:  County  of  in  Ireland,  seat 
of  ancient  Connelly  Family,  95. 

Doniphan,  Colonel  A.  W. :  aided  by 
Dr.  Henry  Connelly,  98. 

Draper's  Meadows:  the  Harmans 
settled  at,  26. 

Draper,  George:  in  battle  with  In- 
dians at  camp  of  hunters,  30;  ran 
away,  32. 

Draper,  John:  action  of  in  captivity 
of  Mrs.  Wiley,  87. 

Duncards,  the:  lived  about  Ingles 's 
Ferry  in  1750,  18. 

Dutchmen:  the  Harmans,  Steiner, 
Stoner,  and  Mansker,  as  well  as 
all  other  Germans  in  Backwoods 
so  called,  27. 

Edgefield,  Mary:  married  Edmund 

Connelly,  98. 
Ely,    Dr.    William:      work    on    Big 

Sandy  Valley  referred  to,   12. 
Eogan:  King  of  Ireland,  A.  D.  379; 

founder   of  the   Connelly   Family, 

Estep,  James:  married  Amanda  Mc- 

Carty,  145. 
Estep,     Joseph:     married     Angelina 

McCarty,  145. 
Evans,  James:  actions  of  in  capture 

of  Mrs.  Wiley,  87. 
Evans,  Lewis:    map   of  referred   to, 

Evans,  William:  lived  where;  James 

Spradlin,    Sr.,    died    at    house    of, 


Fagg's  Manor  School:  forerunner 
of  Princeton  University,   134. 

Fairchilds,  the:  many  of  descended 
from    Edith   MacAlpiue,    100. 

Fairchild   Family,   the:    founded   by 

Abind  Fairchild,  a  soldier  in  the 
Revolution,   127. 

Fairchild,  Abind:  founder  of  the 
Fairchild  Family  in  Eastern  Ken- 
tucky; soldier  in  the  Eevolution; 
born  in  Westmoreland  County, 
Va. ;  pension  declaration  of,  127; 
history  of  Eevolutionary  services 
in  pension  declaration  of,  128,  et. 
seq. ;  in  King 's  Mountain  cam- 
paign; routes  of  march,  130; 
served  under  John  C.  Cleveland, 
131;  where  and  when  born;  lived 
where  and  when;  Revolutionary 
services  of,  132;  references  of; 
services  rendered;  when  moved  to 
Kentucky;  lived  about  Fish  Trap 
Meeting  House;  enrolled  as  Eevo- 
lutionary  pensioner,    133. 

Fairchild,  Asa :  married  Nancy  Con- 
nelly, 127. 

Fairchild,  Celia,  married  Constantine 
Conley,  126. 

Fairchild,  Mary:  married  George 
Blair,   134, 

Fanning,  Colonel  David:  the  fam.ous 
Tory  of  the  Eevolution;  biograph- 
ical sketch  of;  Captain  Henry 
Connelly  appointed  to  keep  him 
down,   110,   119. 

Ferguson,  Colonel:  killed  at  battle 
of  King's  Mountain,  131. 

Fermanagh:  the  Connellys  chiefs  in, 

Firbolgs:  subdued  by  the  Milesians, 

Fish  Trap  Meeting  House:  Abind 
Fairchild  lived  near,   133. 

Fitz-Adelm  de  Burgo,  William :  the 
Norman  ancestor  of  the  Burke 
Family,  142. 

Flat  Gap,  the:  Indians  passed 
through  with  Mrs.  Wile}',  50. 

Flat  Rock  Ford :  a  noted  place,  52 ; 
painted  trees  about,  53. 

Fort  Towson:  Dr.  Henrj'  Connelly 
spent  winter  at,  98. 



French,  the:  v>ith  Indians,  built 
cabins  at  the  mouth  of  Big  Paint 
Creek,  55. 

Friend,  John:  Justice  of  the  Peace, 

Galway:  County  of  in  Ireland,  seat 
of  ancient  Connelly  Family,  95. 

Gates,  General  Horatio:  the  Con- 
nellys served  under  in  Revolution, 

Genealogy  of  Irish  Families:  by 
Rooney,  referred  to,  95,  142,  143. 

Gillery,  Lieut.  "William :  acted  as 
Captain  of  Abind  Fairchild's  com- 
pany, 128;  discharged  men  at  Tur- 
key Hill,  129. 

Gist,  Christopher:  entry  in  Journal 
of  referred  to,  10. 

Glasgow,  Edward  J. :  partner  of  Dr. 
Henry  Connelly  in  Mexico,  98. 

Goodwin,  General:  known  by  Cap- 
tain Henry  Connelly,  114. 

Grahams,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Graham,  Colonel  T.  W. :  referred  to 
by  Captain  Henry  Connelly,  118. 

Great  Flat  Top  Mountain:  Indian 
trail  ran  along  the  top  of,  41 ; 
sometimes  called  Indian  Ridge,  42. 

Green,  Rev.  William :  mentioned,  145. 

Greene,  General  Nathaniel:  the  Con- 
nellys served  under  in  the  Revo- 
lution, 96;  in  command  of  the 
troops  of  the  Carolinas;  great  re- 
treat of,  113;  Captain  Henry  Con- 
nelly with  on  famous  retreat  to 
Dan   River.    117. 

Greenleaf  Ford:  on  the  Catawba; 
troops  crossed  at  on  King's  Moun- 
tain campaign,  130. 

Guilford  Court  House:  battle  of, 
113;  Captain  Henry  Connelly  at 
battle  of,  117. 

Guyan,  Henry:  said  to  have  had 
trading  post  at  mouth  of  Guyan- 
dotte  River  in   1750;   the  uncle  of 

Susan    Joynes,    104;     Guyandotte 
River    said   to   have    been    named 
for,  105. 
Guyandotte   River:    origin   of   name 
of,  105. 

Hackworths,  the:  many  of  de- 
scended from  Edith  MacAlpine, 

Hackworth,  Jeremiah:  in  the  Four- 
teenth Kentucky  Infantry;  mar- 
ried Clarinda  Conley,  141. 

Hager  Hill:  mention  of,  55. 

Hale,  John  P. :  work  of  referred  to, 

Half -King,  the:  chief  of  the  Wyan- 
dots;  succeeded  by  Tarhe,  the 
Crane,  11. 

Halls,  the:  many  of  descended  from 
Edith  MacAlpine,  108. 

Hall,  Mesias:  affidavit  of  for  Cap- 
tain  Henry   Connelly,   122. 

Hamiltons,  the :  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Hamilton,  Stephen:  Justice  of  the 
Peace,  121. 

Haney,  William:  affidavit  of  for 
Captain   Henry  Connelly,   122. 

Hanging  Rock:  view  of  from  Paints- 
ville,  Ky.,  55. 

Hanks,  John :  in  the  settlement  at 
Vancouver's  post,  68;  affidavit  of 
concerning  post,  69. 

Hanna,  Rev.  Samuel:  referred  to  by 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,   115. 

ITardestji's  Historical  and  Biograph- 
ical Encyclopedia:  referred  to,  81. 

Harman 's  Station  :  shown  on  Imlay's 
Map  of  Kentucky,  1793,  see  map; 
cause  of  founding  of,  5;  some  of 
the  founders,  6;  first  cabin  built 
on  site  of  as  early  as  1755;  prob- 
ably the  oldest  settlement  in  Ken- 
tucky; had  no  aid  from  any  stao, 
7;  site  of  fixed;  blockhouse  built 
at  described,  67;  dates  fixed  be 
yond    doubt;     shown    on     Imlay's 



map,  68;  beseiged  by  Indians  in 
1788;  abandoned;  destroj^ed  by 
Indians;  rebuilt  in  winter  of  1789- 
90,  77. 

Harman,  Adam:  one  of  the  found- 
ers of  Harman 's  Station,  65. 

Harman,  Adam:  came  to  America 
from  Prussia;  settled  first  in 
Pennsylvania,  then  in  Virginia,  26. 

Harman,  Aquilla:  in  battle  with  In- 
dians at  camp  of  the  hunters,  30. 

Harman,  Daniel:  in  battle  with  In- 
dians at  camp  of  the  hunters,  30; 
one  of  the  founders  of  Harman 's 
Station,  65;  became  permanent 
settler  in  Kentucky;  descendants 
of  live  there,  77. 

Harman,  Ed:  in  battle  with  Indians 
at  camp  of  the  hunters,  30. 

Hannan,  George:  in  battle  with  In- 
dians at  camp  of  the  hunters,  30 ; 
actions  of  according  to  Eagland, 

Harman,  Henry:  one  of  the  found- 
ers of  Harman 's  Station,  65;  ac- 
tions of  according  to  Eagland,  87. 

Harman,  Henry,  Jr.:  actions  of  ac- 
cording to  Eagland,  87. 

Harman,  Jacob:  came  from  Prussia 
to  Pennsylvania  and  then  to  Vir- 
ginia, 26. 

Harman,  Captain  Matthias:  led  com- 
pany to  found  Harman 's  Station; 
one  of  the  Long  Hunters,  6;  cred- 
it given  to  by  Adam  P.  Wiley,  11 ; 
lived  on  Walker 's  Creek,  25 ;  bio- 
graphical sketch  of;  located  col- 
ony in  Ab  's  Valley ;  sold  Thomas 
Wiley  land  on  Walker 's  Creek,  26 ; 
formed  colony  to  settle  in  Big 
Sandy  Valley  at  mouth  of  John 's 
Creek,  27;  called  "Tice"  or 
"Tias"  Harman;  personal  ap- 
pearance of;  made  first  settle- 
ment in  Kentucky  possibly;  was 
in  the  Eevolution ;  went  on  hunt 
in  fall  of  1787,  28;  killed  son  of 

Cherokee  chief ;  enmity  of  chief 
towards,  29;  was  guide  on  Sandy 
Creek  Voyage;  actions  of  in  bat- 
tle at  camp  of  the  hunters  de- 
scribed by  various  persons,  30; 
thought  Cherokee  chief  would  at- 
tack the  settlement;  various  parts 
assigned  to  by  writers,  31;  Indians 
seek  his  cabin  to  destroy  his  fam- 
ily, 33;  situation  of  house  of,  37; 
Cherokee  chief  said  he  would  find 
trail,  43 ;  visited  Kentucky  at  early 
day  with  Boone  and  others,  55; 
went  to  house  of  Thomas  Wiley 
and  took  direction  of  affairs;  saw 
there  was  no  Indian  uprising; 
went  forward  to  the  founding  of 
Harman 's  Station,  64 ;  set  for- 
ward on  the  trail  and  followed  it 
rapidly,  65;  gave  up  the  pursuit 
of  the  Indians;  went  to  site  of 
blockhouse,  66;  founded  Harman 's 
Station,  68 ;  rebuilt  the  block- 
house in  the  winter  of  1789-90,  69; 
took  Mrs.  Wiley  back  to  Virginia, 
76;  returned  to  Virginia  and  died 
there,  77;  went  in  pursuit  of  In- 
dians, 82 ;  what  Eagland  says.  87 ; 
raising  a  company  of  rangers  for 
service  in  the  Carolinas,  88;  sent 
back  to  the  settlements,  91;  men- 
tioned, 92. 
Harman,  Matthias,  Jr.:  wrote  ac- 
count of  the  battle  at  camp  of 
the  hunters  for  the  author,  30. 
Harman,  William:  in  battle  with  In 
dians  at  camp  of  the  hunters.  30. 
Harris,    David    K. :    referred    to    by 

Captain   Henry   Connelly,   115. 
Harris,  Henry  C. :  Attorney  for  Cap- 
tain   Henry    Connelly;     said    the 
Captain  was  a  Dutchman,   123. 
Haw  Fields:   meeting  place  for  the 

Tories  in  the  Eevolution,  111. 
Hawps,  Eobert :   one  of  the  party  to 
found   Harman 's   Station ;    one   of 
the    Long    Hunters.    6 ;     went    on 



hunt  with  the  Harmaus  in  fall  of 
1787,  29;   one  of  the  founders  of 
Ilarmau's  Station,  65. 
Heber:     son    of    Milcsius,    McCarty 

Family  descended  through,  143. 
Henderson,    Richard:    bought    coun- 
try from  the  Cherokees;  named  it 
Transylvania,    7;     sale    of    claim 
mentioned,  17. 
Heremon:   son  of  Milesius,  Connelly 

Family    descended   through,    95. 
Herrman,  Heinrich:  came  from  Prus- 
sia   to    Pennsylvania;     moved    to 
Strasburg,  Va. ;  brothers  of  came 
to    America;    father    of    Matthias 
Harman,   26;    went   on   hunt  with 
his  sons  in  fall  of  1787,  28;   shot 
with   arrows   by  young   Cherokee, 
29;   other  accounts  of  the  battle, 
Hicks,  Dr.   :    daughter  of  mar- 
ried Harmon  Connelly,  98;  traded 
with    Cherokees;    had    married    a 
Cherokee     woman,    99;     attended 
Thomas  Connelly  on  battlefield  of 
King's  Mountain,  100. 
Hillsboro:    battle    of,    19;     Captain 
Henry    Connelly's   men    killed    at. 
History    of    Tazewell    County,    Vir- 
ginia:  quoted  from,  31. 
Hitchcock,  John:    date  of  birth  of; 
married   whom ;    a   Quaker ;    dates 
of  births  of  children  of;  widow  of 
married   Captain  Henry  Connelly, 
Hitchock,    Temperance:     widow     of 
John     Hitchcock;     Eastern     Ken- 
tucky    families     descended    from, 
Holgin,  Captain:   known  by  Captain 

Henry  Connelly,  114,  117. 
Hood's  Fork,  the:   Indian  trail  fol- 
lowed,  50. 

Horn,  :    believed   to  have   been 

one  of  the  founders  of  Harman 's 
Station,  65. 

Howard,  General  John  E. :  Captain 
Henry  Connelly  served  under  in 
Revolution,  96;  at  battle  of  Cow- 
pens,  113;  known  by  Captain  Con- 
nelly,  114,   117. 

Howe,  John:  early  exploration  of 
Kentucky  told  of  by,  55. 

Howes,  Rev.  Alexis:  led  colonies  of 
Methodists  to  Kentucky,  143,  144. 

Huff,  Peter:    grave  of,  91. 

Hy  Nials,  the  Northern:  descended 
from  Eogan,  95. 

Indian    Bottom  :     Henry    Connelly 

born  at,  104. 
Imlay's  American  Topography:  map 

in  shows  Harman 's  Station,  68. 
Ingles 's   Ferry :    mention    of ;    Dun- 
cards  lived  at   18. 
Ingles,    Mrs.    Mary;    adventures    of 

told  of  by  Adam  P.  Wiley,  9. 
Iron    Works,    the:     Captain    Henry 

Connelly  called  roll  of  his  men  at, 

Iroquois,  the:  claimed  the  country  of 

Kentucky,  17. 

Jackson,  Captain  William:  Abind 
Fairchild  served  under  in  King's 
Mountain  campaign,   130. 

Jaynes,  the :  live  about  the  Flat  Gap 
in  Kentucky,  100. 

Jennie's  Creek:  followed  by  Mrs. 
Wiley,  72,  73 ;  named  for  Mrs. 
Wiley,  74;  Thomas  Connelly  set- 
tled on,  104;  James  Spradlin  lived 
on,   105. 

John 's  Creek :  Harman  's  Station  be- 
low mouth  of,  66;  stream  de- 
scribed, 67. 

.Johnson,  Richard  M. :  Attorney  for 
Abind  Fairchild,  133. 

Johnson  County,  Ky.:  has  sites  of 
first  and  second  settlements  made 
in  Eastern   Kentucky,  54. 

Joynes,  Susan:  descent  of;  married 
Thomas  Connelly;  sketch  of;  Hen- 



ry  Guyan  the  uncle  of;   death  of, 
104;   where  buried,  105. 

Kanawha,  the  Great:  Louisa  River 
marked  as  flowing  into,  8. 

Kearny,  General  S.  W. :  aided  by  Dr. 
Henry  Connelly,  98. 

Kelly,  Joseph:  Mrs.  Wiley  described 
by,  25. 

Kenton,  Simon:  lived  two  winters  at 
mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek,  55. 

Kentucky:  history  of,  as  written, 
deals  only  with  ' '  blue  grass  re- 
gion,"  6;  possibly  first  settled  at 
Harman's  Station,  7;  people  of 
the  east  part  of  descended  from 
Revolutionary  soldiers;  pure  An- 
glo-Saxon speech  of  people  of,  12; 
early  claims  to;  aboriginal  claims 
to,  17;  home  of  many  of  the  Con- 
nellys, 96. 

King's  Mountain:  Thomas  Connelly 
wounded  in  battle  of,  99;  Abind 
Fairchild  in  forces  which  marched 
against,  130. 

King's  Mountain  and  its  Heroes: 
mentioned,  131. 

Krider's  Fort:  passed  by  troops  on 
way  to  King's  Mountain,  130. 

Lackey,  General  Alexander:  com- 
mission of  Captain  Henry  Connelly 
given  to,  114;  referred  to  by  Cap- 
tain Connelly,  118. 

Langleys,  the:  descended  from  Edith 
MacAlpine,  100. 

Langley:  Ann  MacGregor  so  called, 

Langley,  John  Wesley :  portrait  of ; 
ancestry  of;  descended  from  the 
Clan  MacAlpine;  cousin  to  all  the 
descendants  of  Captain  Henry 
Connelly;  early  life  of;  blood-re- 
lationship of  the  largest  in  East- 
ern Kentucky ;  educated  where ; 
degrees  taken  by,  150;  positions 
held     by ;     elected     to     Congress ; 

good  record  of,  151;  proposed 
name  of  Roosevelt  for  Vice  Pres- 
ident;   character   of,    152. 

Laurel  Pork,  the:  Indians  crossed 
over  to,  50. 

Lee,  Colonel:  known  by  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,  114,   117. 

Leek,  :    believed   to   have   been 

one  of  the  founders  of  Harman's 
Station,  65. 

Legend  of  Montrose,  the:  mentioned, 

Lewis,  General  Andrew:  commanded 
Sandy  Creek  Voyage,  91. 

Lewis,  Charles:    death  of,  89. 

Lewis,  Lieut.  Joseph :  known  by  Cap- 
tain  Henry   Connelly,   117. 

Lewis,  Thomas:  described  Mrs.  Jen- 
nie Wiley,   25. 

Le  Visa,  :   a  French  trader  on 

the  Big  Sandy;  Louisa  River  said 
to  have  been  called  Levisa  Eiver 
for,   9. 

Lick  Fork:  Mrs.  Wiley  followed  it 
up  in  her  escape,   72. 

Lincoln,  President  Abraham:  ap- 
pointed Dr.  Henry  Connelly  Gov- 
ernor of  New  Mexico,  98. 

Lincoln,  General  Benjamin:  the  Con- 
nellys served  under  in  the  Revolu- 
tion, 96. 

Litteral,  Hairston :  called  ' '  Austin, ' ' 
Connellys  lived  by,  106;  referred 
to  by  Captain  Henry  Connelly,  118. 

Little  Mudlick  Creek,  the:  Indians 
camped  at,  50 ;  a  description  of, 
51 ;  cliffs  and  rocks  about  mouth 
of,  52 ;  Falls  of  very  fine,  55. 

Little  Paint  Creek:  followed  down 
by   Mrs.   Wiley.   73. 

Loch  Tay:  the  MacGregors  lived  on 
both  sides  of,  101. 

Long,  Matilda:  married  John  Con- 
ley,  141. 

Louisji  River:  named  by  Dr.  Thomas 
Walker;  corrupted  to  Levisa 
I\ii:<r;     the    name    written    Leow- 



visay  by  Felix  Walker,  6;  Ken- 
tucky Eiver  called  Louisa  River 
under  misapprehension,  7;  on  some 
maps  marked  as  flowing  into  the 
Great  Kanawha;  called  Frederick 
Eiver  and  Tottery  Creek  on  old 
maps;  other  accounts  of,  8;  origin 
of  name  of;  should  have  correct 
name  restored,  12. 

Low  Gap  Church:  division  in  Baptist 
Church  occurred  at,  125. 

Lusk,  Absolom:  one  of  the  founders 
of  Harman's  Station,  65. 

Lyttle,  Colonel  :   aided  Captain 

Henry  Connelly  to  dislodge  the 
Tories,  112;  referred  to  by  Cap- 
tain Connelly,  114. 

MacAlpine,  Clan  of:  origin  and  his- 
tory of;  American  families  de- 
scend from,  100. 

MacAlpine,  Edith :  maternal  ancestor 
of  Eastern  Kentucky  families  of 
Connelly,  Langley  and  others, 
100 ;   married  whom,  102. 

MacGregor,  Clan  of:  origin  and  his- 
tory of;  motto  of;  famous  in  an- 
nals of  Scotland;  possessions  of; 
second  oldest  clan  in  Scotland, 

MacGregor,  Archibald:  espoused  the 
cause  of  the  Pretender;  wounded 
at  Culloden  Moore;  escaped  to 
North  Carolina;  married  Edith 
MacAlpine;  daughter  of  married 
Captain  Henry  Connelly;  widow 
of   married   Langley,   102. 

MacGregor,  Ann:  called  Ann  Lang- 
ley ;  married  Captain  Henry  Con- 
nelly, 102;  date  of  birth  of;  chil- 
dren of,  103. 

McAuliffes,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Me- 
Carty  Family,  143. 

McCalls,  the:  a  sept  of  the  McCatry 
Family,   143. 

McCall,  James:  lived  on  the  New 
River  in  1750,  18. 

McCarthy  More:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty  Family,  143. 

McCarthy  Raigh:   a  sept  of  the  Mc- 

Carty  Family,  143. 

McCartneys,  the:  a  sopt  of  the  Mc- 
Carty   Family.    143, 

McCarty  Family,  the:  origin  of; 
families  allied  with ;  a  famous 
family  in  Ireland,  143. 

McCarty,  Abner:  son  of  Captain 
Richard  McCarty;  settled  in  Scott 
County,  Va.,  144. 

McCarty,  Abner:  son  of  John  Mc- 
Carty,  145. 

McCartj^,  Amanda:  married  James 
Estep,  145. 

McCarty,  Angelina:  married  Joseph 
Estep,  145. 

McCarty,  John:  son  of  Wiley;  came 
to  Kentucky  with  Methodist  col- 
ony; married  Lydia  Burke;  lived 
w-here;  traits  of;  death  of,  144. 

McCarty,  John:  son  of  John;  mar- 
ried Sarah  Burkett,  145. 

McCarty,  Martha:  married  Franklin 
Centers,  145. 

McCarty,  Mary  A.:  married  Rev. 
Samuel  K.  Ramey,  145. 

McCarty,  Rebecca  Jane:  married 
Constantine  Conley,  Jr.,  140; 
mother  of  the  author,  145;  tribute 
of  Rev.  Alexis  Howes  to,  146; 
buried  where,  147,  children  of, 

McCarty,  Richard:  born  in  Culpeper 
County,  Va. ;  at  Braddock  's  de- 
feat ;  in  company  of  one  Slaught- 
er, 143;  in  the  Revolution  as  Cap- 
tain in  the  Virginia  Line;  died  in 
service,  144. 

McCarty,  Wiley:  son  of  Abner;  lived 
in  Scott  County,  Va.,  144. 

McCarty,  Wiley :  son  of  John ;  mar- 
ried Frances  Calhoun,  145. 

McCoys,  the:  a  sept  of  the  McCarty 
Family;  many  of  descended  from 
Edith  MacAlpine,   100. 



McCurtins,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty  Family,   143. 

MeCutcheons,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty  Family,  143. 

McDowells,  the:  a  part  of  the  Col- 
vin  Family,  134. 

McGuires,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

McHughes,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty  Family,  143. 

Malmody,  Colonel:  referred  to  by 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  114,  117. 

Mankins,  Peter:  neighbor  of  Thomas 
Connelly;  died  in  Washington 
County,  Ark.,  aged  114  years,  114. 

Mankins,  Walter:  early  explorations 
made  by,  55. 

Mansker,  Casper:  related  to  the  Har- 
mans,  27. 

Maxwell,  George:  in  battle  with  In- 
dians, 87. 

May,  Artemisia:  eldest  daughter  of 
Caleb  May;  married  Constantine 
Conley,  Jr.,*  147. 

May,  Caleb:  mentioned,  147. 

Mayo,  Henry  B. :  referred  to  by  Cap- 
tain Henry  Connelly,  115. 

Mayo,  Jacob:  refen-ed  to  by  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,  118. 

Meath :  County  of,  seat  of  ancient 
Connelly  Family,  95. 

Meek,  Rev.  Zephaniah:  letter  of  to 
author,  8;  wrote  remarkably  ac- 
curate account  of  the  adventures 
of  Mrs.  Wiley;  account  of  given; 
editor  of  Central  Methodist,  81. 

Middle  Fork:  passed  by  Mrs.  Wiley, 

Milesians:  wliom  they  arc  in  Ireland, 

Milesius:  King  of  Spain;  Connelly 
Family  descended  from,  95;  Mc- 
Carty  Family  descended  from,  143. 

Montgomery,  Edith:  married  Wil- 
liam Blair,  138. 

Moore,  James:  in  battle  with  In- 
dians, 87. 

Morgan,  General  Daniel:  the  Con- 
nellys served  under  in  the  Revolu 
tion,  96;  commanded  at  battle  of 
Cowpens,  113. 

Mounds:  those  at  mouth  of  Big 
Paint  Creek,  54. 

Mound  Builders,  the:  monuments  of 
in  Big  Sandy  Valley,  55. 

Murray,  Samuel:  married  Sarah 
Wiley,  11. 

Nelson,    Christine :     married    Heze- 

kiah  Wiley,  10. 
Nelson 's   Ferry :    troops   crossed    at, 

Nibert,    James:     owned    the    Wiley 

farm,  86. 

O 'Collins,  the:  sept  of  the  McCarty 
Family,  143. 

O 'Conghailaigh :  ancient  form  of  the 
name  Connelly  and  other  Irish 
names,  95. 

O  'Cowleys,  the :  sept  of  the  McCarty 
Family,  143. 

O'Currys,  the;  a  sept  of  the  McCar- 
ty Family,  143. 

O 'Donovans,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty Family,  143. 

O'Dunnadsys,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty Family,  143. 

O'Keefes,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty Family,  143. 

O'Mahoneys,  the:  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty Family,  143. 

O  'Scanlons,  the :  a  sept  of  the  Mc- 
Carty Family,  143. 

Ohio,  the:  joy  of  Indians  on  reach- 
ing, 48. 

Owens,  Captain  :  theory  of  con- 
cerning the  Louisa  River,  8;  the 
ory  wrong,  9. 

Painted    licks:     those    on    site    of 

Paiutsville  so  called,  53. 
Paint   Lick:    first   name   for   Paints 

ville,  Ky.,  54. 



Painted  rocks:  those  at  junction  of 
Mudlick  creeks,  52. 

Paintsville,  Ky. :  origin  of  name  of, 
54;  cabins  built  below  site  of  by 
the  French,  55. 

Painted  trees:  many  found  on  the 
Big  Sandy  River,  10;  those  at 
mouth  of  Big  Paint  Creek,  52; 
above  Flat  Rock  Ford,  53. 

Paisley,  Colonel  :  Captain  Hen- 
ry Connelly  served  under,  109; 
ordered  South  to  join  General  Lin- 
coln, 112;  referred  to  by  Captain 
Connelly,  114,  117. 

Partonairre:  family  of  Susan  Joynes 
descended  from,  104. 

Patricks,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Perthshire:  former  home  of  the  Mac- 
Gregors,  101. 

Picklesimer,  Charlotte:  married  Con- 
stantine  Conley,  Jr.,  147;  children 
of,  148.      . 

Picklesimer,  Nathaniel:  married 
whom,  141. 

Pickens,    General    :    known    by 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  114,  117. 

Pinckney,  General  Charles  Cotes- 
worth,  the  Connellys  served  under 
in  the  Revolution,  96. 

Prater,  Jeff:  banker  at  Salyersville, 
Ky. ;  son  of  whom,  106. 

Prater,  Jilson:  Henry  Connelly,  Jr., 
liver  near,  106. 

Prater,  William :  pioneer  in  Magof- 
fin County,  147. 

Preston,  Shadrach:  Justice  of  the 
Peace,  122. 

Preston,  General  William:  in  Sandy 
Creek  Voyage,  88;  mentioned,  92. 

Pretender,  the:  Archibald  MacGreg- 
or  espoused  cause  of,  102. 

Prices,  the:  some  of  descended  from 
Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Princeton  University :  first  schools  of 
founded  by  the  Blairs,  134. 

Porters,  the:  came  with  Hezekiah 
Sellards  from  Shenandoah,  21. 

Pound  River:   mention  of,  10. 

Powell,  :  mentioned,  97. 

Power,  Louis:  saved  from  drowning 
by  John  Blair,  136;  niece  of  mar- 
ried whom,  147. 

Pytts,  Jonathan:  a  soldier  of  the 
Revolution;  affidavit  of  for  Cap- 
tain  Henry   Connelly,    120. 

Ragland,    H.    C:    confused    Sandy 

Creek  Voyage  with  captivity  of 
Mrs.  Wiley,  30;  edited  the  Logan 
County  (West  Virginia)  Banner, 
86;   account  of  given,  87. 

Ramey,  Rev.  Samuel:  married  Mary 
A.  McCarty,  145. 

Rattlesnake:  picture  of  on  tree  at 
Flat  Rock  Ford,  53. 

Revolution,  the:  in  Middle  Counties 
of  North  Carolina;  Captain  Henry 
Connelly 's  pension  declaration  best 
history  of  written,  124. 

Rices,  the:  many  of  descended  from 
Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Rice,  Andrew  J.:  married  Catherine 
Conley,  141. 

Rice,  Dr.  Isaac:  married  Celia  Con- 
nelly; son  of  Samuel  Rice,  sec- 
ond marriage  to  Malinda,  widow 
of  Britton  Blair,  126;  traits  of, 

Rice,  John :  referred  to  by  Captain 
Henry  Connelly,  115. 

Rice,  Martin  R. :  wealthiest  man  in 
Johnson  County;  lived  on  old  Con- 
nelly farm,  104. 

Rice,  Samuel:  first  settler  on  Little 
Mudlick  Creek,  126. 

Robbins.  Captain  John:  Abind  Fair- 
child  served  under,  128. 

Robinsons,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Rockhouses:  what  they  are  and 
where  found,  41. 



Eooney,  John:  -work  of  referred  to, 

Eoy,  Eobert:  hero  of  Scott's  famous 
novel;   was  a  MacGregor,  101. 

Eule,  Andrew:  referred  to  by  Cap- 
tain Connelly,  115,  118. 

Eutherford,  General  :  known  by 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  114. 

Salisbury:  troops  marched  to  in 
Eevolution,  128 

Salyers,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  Mac  Alpine,  100. 

Salyers,  Benjamin:  married  Frances 
Connelly;  lived  on  Big  Mudlick 
Creek;  died  of  cancer,  126. 

Salyer,  Christina :  married  John  Wil- 
liams, 126. 

Salyer,  Hendrix:  son  of  Benjamin 
Salyer;  married  Margaret  Wil- 
liams; lives  on  Big  Mudlick 
Creek,   126. 

Sandy  Creek  Voyage,  the:  Cherokee 
Chief  and  Matthias  Harman  had 
been  guides  in,  30;  mentioned,  92. 

Santa  Fe  Trail:  Dr.  Henry  Connelly 
sent  caravans  over,  98. 

Scott,  Sir  Walter:  found  material 
for  his  famous  novels  in  annals  of 
Clan  MacGregor;  what  he  says  of 
the  Clan,  101. 

Sellards,  Hezekiah:  some  account  of, 
20;  hunted  in  Western  Virginia; 
led  colony  into  Walker's  Creek 
country;  names  of  those  who  came 
with  him,  21 ;  family  of ;  daughter 
of  married  John  Borders,  24. 

Sellards,  Jack:  son  of  Hezekiah  Sel- 
lards, 24. 

Sellards,  Jennie:  daughter  of  Heze- 
kiah Sellards,  24  ;  personal  appear- 
ance of;  characteristics  of,  25; 
married  Thomas  Wiley,  26. 

Sellards,  Thomas:  son  of  Hezekiah 
Sellards,   24. 

Shataras,  the:  lived  in  the  Big 
Sandy  Valley,  55. 

Shawnees,  the:  some  of  in  the  band 
which  carried  away  Mrs.  Wiley, 
33 ;  graves  of  about  Paintsville, 
Ky.,  55;  told  Mrs.  Wiley  their  an- 
cestors had  lived  about  the  Falls 
of  Little  Mudlick  Creek.   56. 

Shawnee  Chief,  the:  description  of, 
34;  made  prisoner  of  Mrs.  Wiley 
and  saved  her  life,  38;  care  of  for 
prisoners,  42;  planned  ordeal  for 
Mrs  Wiley's  child,  49;  sold  Mrs. 
Wiley  to  the  Cherokee  Chief,  61. 

Skaggs,  James:  one  of  the  founders 
of  Harman 's  Station ;  one  of  the 
Long  Hunters,  6;  in  battle  with 
Indians,  28;  came  to  Kentucky  at 
early  day,  55 ;  sent  to  build  block- 
house, 65;  death  of,  77. 

Skaggs,  Henry:  one  of  party  to 
found  Harman 's  Station;  one  of 
the  Long  Hunters,  6;  in  battle 
with  Indians,  28;  explored  Ken- 
tucky, 55;  sent  to  build  block- 
house, 65 ;  recognized  Mrs.  Wiley, 
74 ;  got  her  across  the  Big  Sandy 
Eiver,  75;  helped  to  rebuild  Har- 
man's  Station;  died  where,  77. 

Smallwood,  General  :  known  by 

Captain  Henry  Sonnelly,  114,  117. 

Spears,  Samuel:  owned  the  Wiley 
farm,  86. 

Spradlins,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Spradlin,  Clarinda,  daughter  of  Wil- 
liam Spradlin,  141. 

Spradlin,  James:  a  pioneer  in  Ken- 
tucky; lived  where;  married 
Eachel  Connelly;  death  of;  author 
helped  to  dig  grave  of;  Constan- 
tino Conley,  Jr.,  sawed  off  lid  of 
Coffin,  105. 

Spradlin.  Mahala:  married  Asa 
Blair.  139. 

Sfiradlin,  Malinda:  married  whom, 

Spradlin,  Mantford:  son  of  whom, 



Spradlin,  Sarah:  married  William 
Blair,  138. 

Spradlin,  William:  married  Mahala 
Conley,  141. 

Staff ords,  the:  came  with  Hezekiah 
Sellards  from  the  Shenandoah,  21. 

Stalnacker,    Samuel :     lived    on    the 

Holston  in  17.50,  18. 

Stambaugh,  Buchanan:  son  of  whom, 

Stambaugh,  John:  married  Clarinda 
Blair,  138. 

Stampers,  the :  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,   100. 

Stapletons,  the:  many  of  descended 
from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Stapleton,  Edward:  married  daugh- 
ter of  Benjamin  Salyer,  126. 

Stapleton,  Joseph:  married  daughter 
of   Benjamin  Salyer,  126. 

Steiner  (or  Stoner),  Michael:  cousin 
to  the  Harmans,  26. 

Stephenson,  :  Dr.  Henry  Con- 
nelly went  to  Mexico  with,  98. 

Stone,  Rev.  Cuthbert:  referred  to  by 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  115. 

Stone,  Rev.  Ezekiel:  referred  to  by 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  115,  118, 

South  Carolina,  Colony  of:  first 
American  home  of  Connellys,  95. 

Sumner,  Colonel:  opposed  the  Loyal- 
ists, 112;  known  by  Captain  Henry 
Connelly,   114,   117. 

Syms,  Colonel:  served  with  Abind 
Fairchild  in   Revolution,   129. 

Tarleton,  Sir  Banastre:  defeated  at 
battle  of  Cowpens,  113. 

Taylor,  Colonel  John:  Captain 
Henr>'  Connely  served  under,  109. 

The  Narrative  of  Colonel  David  Fan- 
ning: a  rare  book;  copy  of  in  li- 
brary of  author;  some  account  of, 

Tories,  the:  Captain  Henry  Connelly 
appointed    to    keep    down ;    where 

they  congregated,  111;  many  of 
them  captured  and  put  in  jail; 
made  a  stand  at  Colson  's  Mills, 
112;  to  be  put  down,  119;  many 
about  Haw  Fields,  120;  very  bad 
in  Western  Carolina,  122;  pur- 
sued by  Colonel  Benjamin  Cleve- 
land, 129;  defeated  at  Ranisour's 
IMill,  130;  nine  of  hanged,  131. 

Toteros:  lived  in  the  Big  Sandy  Val- 
ley, 52 ;  had  many  towns  there,  55. 

Trans-Allegheny  Pioneers,  referred 
to,  9. 

Turkey  Hill,  Abind  Fairchild  dis- 
charged at,  129. 

Twelve  Pole  Creek,  Hezekiah  Wiley 
settled  on,  10;  other  children  of 
Mrs.  Wiley  lived  on.  11;  Indians 
camped  at  head  of,  44. 

Twetty,  Captain :  explored  Ken- 
tucky, 6. 

Twin  Branches,  the;  James  Spradlin 
settled  at  Mouth  of,  105. 

Underwoods,  the:  many  of  descend- 
ed from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 

Vancouver,  Charles:  built  post  at 
forks  of  Big  Sandy  River  in  1789, 

Vancouver 's  post,  building  of :  affi- 
davit concerning,   69. 

Van  Hoose,  James  Hayden:  gave  ac- 
count of  Mrs.  Wiley,  79. 

Van  Hoose,  Colonel  John:  referred 
to  by  Captain  Henry  Connelly,  115. 

Van  Hoose,  Valentine:  mounds  on 
land  of,  54. 

Vickerstaff 's:  nine  Tory  prisoners 
hanged  at  farm,  131. 

Wadkins,  Benedict;  affidavit  of  for 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  121. 

Walker,  Felix:  extract  from  Journal 
of,  6. 

Walker,  Dr.  Thomas:  extract  from 
Journal     of;     named     the    Louisa 



River,  5 ;  name  not  known  for 
some  years,  7;  Frederick  River 
discovered  and  named  by,  8 ;  Jour- 
nal of  mentions  Stalnacker  and 
McCall  as  living  in  the  wilderness, 

Walker 's  Creek :  Hezekiah  Sellards 
settled  on,  21. 

Walker's  Place:  troops  stopped  at 
on  King's  mountain  campaign, 
130;  returned  to  after  battle,  131. 

Washington,  General  George:  the 
Connelly's  served  under  in  Revolu- 
tion, 96. 

Washington,  Colonel  William  (or 
Billy)  :  Captain  Henry  Connelly 
served  under,  109 ;  known  by  Cap- 
tain Connelly,  114,  117. 

Washington's  Legion:  came  to  aid 
of  Captain  Connelly  at  battle  the 
Cowpens,  113. 

Webbs,  the:  some  of  descended  from 
Edith  MacAIpine,  100. 

Wheeler,  Colonel  John  H. :  copy  of 
Fanning 's  Narrative  formerly 
owned  by  in  library  of  author,  111. 

White  House:  on  the  Savannah, 
guarded  by  Abind  Fairchild,  129. 

Wilderness  Boad,  the:  mentioned,  6. 

Wiley,  Adam  P. :  statements  of  con- 
cerning his  mother  followed  by 
author,  8;  character  of;  physical 
condition  of  when  author  knew 
him;  minister  of  the  Gospel;  au- 
thority on  Border  lore,  9 ;  account 
of  agrees  with  best  authorities; 
exacted  from  author  a  promise  to 
write  an  account  of  adventures  of 
his  mother,  10;  left  family  in 
Johnson  County,  Ky. ;  full  name 
of;  gave  credit  to  Matthias  Har- 
man,  11;  knew  Thomas  and  Jack 
Sellards,  his  uncles,  24;  text  of 
account  of  battle  with  Indians  at 
camp  of  hunters  given  author  by; 
said  Bickley,  in  History  of  Taze- 
well   Count  n    had     tliis    battle    in 

mind  when  he  wrote  of  fight  be- 
tween the  Harmans  and  the  In- 
dians, 31;  gave  number  of  In- 
dians in  band  -which  murdered 
Wiley  family,  34;  erroneously  said 
to  have  been  son  of  Shawnee 
Chief,  39;  certain  of  the  torture 
of  the  captive,  60 ;  date  of  found- 
ing Harman's  Station  fixed  by, 
68;  Meek's  characterization  of; 
name  of  in  full ;  called  ' '  Yard ' ' 
Wiley,  85;  account  of  differs  from 
that  of  Ragland,  91. 

Wiley,  Hezekiah:  married  whom; 
lived  where;  died  when,  10. 

Wiley,  Jane :  daughter  of  whom,  10 ; 
married  Richard  Williamson ;  lived 
where,   11. 

Wiley,  Mrs.  Jennie:  account  of  by 
son  followed  by  author,  8 ;  wonder- 
ful endurance  of,  9 ;  descendants  of 
mentioned,  10 ;  whom  they  married 
and  where  they  lived,  11;  described 
the  Indians  who  carried  her  away 
captive,  34;  was  weaving  when  In- 
dians came;  warned  of  Indians 
by  John  Borders,  36;  prepared  to 
go  to  home  of  Borders,  37;  the 
attack,  38;  adopted  by  Shawnee 
Chief  as  daughter;  escaped  viola 
tion,  39 ;  route  taken  by  the  In- 
dians, 41 ;  second  day  and  night 
of  captivity,  41 ;  second  day  and 
of  captivity;  child  of  sick;  Shaw- 
nee Chief  treated,  42;  march  of 
the  third  day;  child  in  danger,  43; 
again  aided  by  the  Shawnee 
Chief;  failed  to  keep  up,  44;  ran 
back,  45 ;  creek  named  in  her 
honor,  45 ;  child  killed  by  the  Cher- 
okee Chief;  forced  to  cross  the 
Tug  River;  a  terrible  ordeal,  46; 
course  of  to  the  Ohio,  47;  at  the 
Ohio;  down  the  Ohio;  captors  sep- 
arate, 48;  up  the  Little  Sandy; 
camped  on  Cherokee  Fork  of  Big 
Blaine    Creek ;    son    born    to    her 



there;  ordeal  for  the  child,  49; 
child  tomahawked  and  scalped ; 
carried  to  Little  Mudlick  Creek, 
50;  ancient  home  of  the  Shawnees, 
56;  arrived  there  in  April;  made 
slave  of,  57;  made  to  smelt  lead 
ore;  promised  all  rites  of  regular 
adoption,  58 ;  arrival  of  Cherokee 
Chief  with  captive;  made  to  cook 
for  Cherokee  Chief,  59;  certain 
that  the  captive  was  tortured; 
rudely  treated,  60;  advised  that 
she  was  to  be  tortured;  bought  by 
the  Cherokee  Chief,  61;  dead  child 
of  found  and  buried;  Indians 
escape  with,  66;  strange  dream  of, 
70;  such  dreams  not  unusual;  de- 
termined to  escape,  71;  escape  of; 
route  taken  by;  awful  night,  72; 
knew  nothing  of  country;  arrived 
at  Harmans  Station,  73 ;  her  escape 
almost  miraculous,  74;  when  safe, 
Indians  appeared  in  pursuit  of, 
75;  length  of  captivity  of;  re- 
stored to  husband;  moved  with 
husband  to  Kentucky;  a  widow  21 
years ;  death  of,  76 ;  story  of  wide- 
ly known;  some  other  accounts  of 
her  adventures,  79;  version  of 
James  Hayden  Van  Hoose,  80; 
married  in  1779,  91. 

Wiley,  Sarah:  daughter  of  whom, 
10;   marriages  of,  11. 

Wiley,  Samuel:  settled  in  Ab's  Val- 
ley, 26;  Eagland's  account  of,  87. 

Wiley,  Thomas:  home  of  destroyed 
by  Indians,  5;  came  from  Ireland; 
bought  land  from  Matthias  Har- 
man ;  built  house  on  Walker 's 
Creek ;  married  Jennie  Sellards. 
26;  children  of;  absent  from 
home  when  Indians  came,  36;  sit- 
uation of  home  of,  37;  house  of 
destroyed  and  family  murdered, 
63 ;  followed  the  Indians  unsuc- 
cessfully, 64 ;  not  at  home  when 
pursuers  went  on  trail,  65;  moved 

to    Kentucky ;    death   of ;    married 

when,  91. 
Wiley,  William:  mentioned,  10,  11. 
Wilkesborough,  troops  marcheu  from 

to  King's  Mountain,  130. 
William  the  Conqueror:   ancestor  of 

the  Burke  family  related  to,  142. 
Williams,    the:    many   of    descended 

from  Edith  MacAlpine,  100. 
Williams,     Colonel     John:      Captain 

Henry  Connelly  served  under,  109. 
Williams,    John:    married    Christina 

Salyer,  126. 
Williams,    Margaret :    married    Hen- 

drix  Salyer,  126. 
Williams,    Colonel    Nat :    known    by 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  117    " 
Williams,   General   Otho:    known   by 

Captain  Henry  Connelly,  114,  117. 
Williams,  Powell:   son  of  John  Wil 

liams,  126. 
Williamson,  Phillip:   affidavit  of  for 
Captain  Henry  Connelly,  119. 
Williamson,  Richard:  married  whom, 

Witten,  Dr.  :  knew  Bickley,  au- 
thor of  work  on  Tazewell  County; 

said  Bickley  fell  into  some  errors, 

Witten,  T.   A.:    letter  of  father  of 

mentioned,  31. 
Wolf  Creek:  Indians  passed  up  with 

captives,  41. 
Wolf  Pen  Branch,  the:   Constantino 

Conley,  Jr.,  lived  on;  the  author 

born  on,  105. 
Wyandots,    the:    had    no    totem    of 

the    Crane;    had    no   chief    named 

Crane,  11;  some  of  in  band  which 

captured  Mrs.  Wiley,  33. 

Yokktown:  Captain  Henry  Connelly 
raised  company  to  go  to;  called 
Little  York,  114;  men  discharged 
at  Big  Lick,  118. 

Yost,  Christian:  married  whom; 
lived  where,    11. 



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